Magnocellular neurons of the PVN and supraoptic
nucleus of the hypothalamus also produce a number of anorexigenic neuropeptides, including CART, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, cholecystokinin (CCK), and nesfatin-1 (51), and are activated during feeding and by satiety peptides such as CCK and GLP1.
Richard, "Release of oxytocin within the supraoptic
nucleus during the milk ejection reflex in rats," Experimental Brain Research, vol.
As is well known, OT is produced in the supraoptic
and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.
The posterior or neurohypophyseal lobe of the pituitary contains the terminals of certain neurons (i.e., magnocellular vasopressin- and oxytocin-producing neurons) originating in two specific sections (i.e., the paraventricular nuclei [PVN] and supraoptic
nuclei) of the hypothalamus.
Previous studies have shown that gliosis, atrophy, and functional defects can be present in hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic
Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is expressed in hypothalamic nuclei, the arcuate nuclei, lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nuclei, supraoptic
nuclei, gastric mucosa, pancreatic islets, testis, and AT .
Armstrong, "Epithelial [Na.sup.+] sodium channels in magnocellular cells of the rat supraoptic
and paraventricular nuclei," American Journal of Physiology--Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
Hernandez, "Synaptic innervation to rat hippocampus by vasopressin-immuno-positive fibres from the hypothalamic supraoptic
and paraventricular nuclei," Neuroscience, vol.
ADH is an octapeptide synthesized in the supraoptic
nuclei of the hypothalamus and then stored and released from the posterior pituitary gland.
In the case of the brain, several reports indicate that the expression of the IL-1 receptor-1 (IL-1R1) in endothelial cells is high in the preoptic area, subfornical organ, and supraoptic
hypothalamus, while a lesser expression is found in the paraventricular hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, nucleus of the solitary tract, ventrolateral medulla, trigeminal and hypoglossal motor nuclei, and the area postrema [51-53].
Swanson, "The organization of forebrain afferents to the paraventricular and supraoptic
nuclei of the rat," Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol.
(7) The hormonal cascade involves the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic