nerve

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Related to suprascapular nerve: subscapular nerve, Lateral pectoral nerve

nerve:

see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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.

Nerve

 

the cordlike association of nerve tissues that links the brain and nerve ganglia by innervation to the other organs and tissues of the body.

A nerve primarily consists of nerve fibers. In vertebrates many nerves converge to form a bundle that is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath, the perineurium; the thin interstitial layers of connective tissue that separate the individual fibers deep within the bundle constitute the endoneurium. Finally, the entire nerve trunk, comprising several bundles, is covered by an additional sheath, the epineurium.

Nerves can be sensory (also called afferent or centripetal) or motor (also called efferent or centrifugal). Some nerves, for example, those innervating the skeletal muscles, mainly include myelinated, or medullated, fibers; others, for example, the sympathetic nerves, largely consist of unmyelinated, or unmedullated, fibers.

In reptiles, birds, mammals, and man 12 pairs of cranial nerves branch from the brain: the olfactory (cranial nerve I), the optic (cranial nerve II), the oculomotor (cranial nerve III), the trochlear (cranial nerve IV), the trigeminal (cranial nerve V), the abducent (cranial nerve VI), the facial (cranial nerve VII), the acoustic (cranial nerve VIII), the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX), the vagus (cranial nerve X), the accessory (cranial nerve XI), and the hypoglossal (cranial nerve XII). Only the first ten pairs are present in fish and amphibians.

In man there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: eight cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal. Each pair innervates the effectors and receptors of a certain part of the body. The spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord into two roots—the posterior, or sensory, and the anterior, or motor. Both roots then combine to form a common trunk that consists of both sensory and motor fibers.

Several adjacent nerves can be combined into nerve plexuses, where an exchange of fibers between different nerves can take place. Three large plexuses are distinguished: the cervical, the brachial, and the lumbosacral. Each nerve plexus is the origin of several pairs of nerves; for example, the sacral portion of the lumbosacral plexus gives rise to the sciatic nerves.

Nerves that originate in the ganglia, trunks, and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system constitute a specific group. The optic nerve is remarkable for its large number of fibers; there are more than 1 million in the human optic nerve. Usually, however, there are 103 -104 fibers in a nerve. In invertebrates certain nerves are known to consist of only a few fibers. The peripheral nervous system in animals and man consists of aggregations of nerves.

D. A. SAKHAROV

nerve

[nərv]
(neuroscience)
A bundle of nerve fibers or processes held together by connective tissue.

nervure

Any one of the ribs of a groined vault, but esp. a rib which forms one of the sides of a compartment of the groining.

nerve

1. any of the cordlike bundles of fibres that conduct sensory or motor impulses between the brain or spinal cord and another part of the body
2. a large vein in a leaf
3. any of the veins of an insect's wing
References in periodicals archive ?
Occurrence of a completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament can have a genetic influence and can cause suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome.
Which treatment approach is better for hemiplegic shoulder pain in stroke patients: Intra-articular steroid or suprascapular nerve block?
Multiple studies have been carried out with particular reference to suprascapular notch partial or complete ossification of superior transverse scapular ligament to avoid this risk during operative procedures and to study the pathology of suprascapular nerve compress-ion.
The transverse scapular ligament was transected to release the suprascapular nerve in the suprascapular notch.
Suprascapular nerve paralysis due to streptococcal meningoradiculitis in a cow.
16,17) Good outcome ([greater than or equal to] M3) has been reported in 86% of patient undergoing concurrent transfer to both the axillary and suprascapular nerve.
2001) and Sarikcioglu & Sindel (2001) report subclavius posticus muscles innervated by branches from the suprascapular nerve.
Safe placement on the suprascapular nerve is well described (2) and raises the question whether this technique, in conjunction with a single shot axillary nerve block, would enable extension of postoperative analgesia past 24 hours following arthroscopic supraspinatus repair.
If suprascapular nerve entrapment is suspected, this nerve may be placed under tension in scapular depression and protraction combined with horizontal flexion.
DISCUSSION: There are many causes of suprascapular nerve dysfunction.
Originating from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus, the suprascapular nerve passes through the suprascapular notch, beneath the transverse scapular ligament and sends motor branches to the supraspinatus muscle.
Table 1 Differential diagnoses for Paget Schroetter syndrome Pain * Neurogenic TOS * Cervical radiculopathy * Brachial plexopathy * Rotator cuff tendinopathy * Subacromial impingement * Scapular dysfunction * Biceps tendinopathy * Labral tear * Instability * Quadrilateral space syndrome * Long thoracic nerve palsy * Suprascapular nerve palsy * Peripheral nerve entrapment Swelling * Arterial TOS * Compartment syndrome * Lymphedema * Esophageal or cardiac disease * Complex regional pain syndrome * Intramuscular hemorrhage * Inflammatory disorder * Cellulitis * Breast cancer * Neoplastic compression of mediastinal blood vessels