Sura

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Sura

(so͞orä`), river, c.540 mi (870 km) long, rising E of Penza, S central European Russia. It flows generally north to empty into the Volga River. It is navigable for about 100 mi (160 km) upstream.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sura

 

an urban-type settlement in Nikol’sk Raion, Penza Oblast, RSFSR, located at the confluence of the Inza and Sura rivers. Sura has a railroad station on the Inza-Ruzaevka line. The settlement has a distillery, a woodworking plant, and an industrial combine.


Sura

 

a river in Ul’ianovsk, Penza, and Gorky oblasts of the RSFSR; in the Mordovian ASSR, in the Chuvash ASSR, and in the Mari ASSR; a right tributary of the Volga.

The Sura is 841 km long and drains an area of 67,500 sq km. Originating on the Volga Upland, it flows westward along the upland and then primarily toward the north. The Sura is fed mainly by snow. High water is in April and May. The mean flow rate 63 km from the mouth is 253 cu m per sec; it is 260 cu m per sec at the mouth. The maximum flow rate is 7,240 cu m per sec, and the minimum flow rate, occurring from January through March, is 10.5 cum per sec.

The Sura freezes in November or December, and the ice breaks up in late March or in April. The main tributaries are the Uza, the Alatyr’, and the P’iana, on the left, and the Inza and the Barysh, on the right. The lower reaches of the Sura are navigable and are used for floating timber. The river is a source of water for industrial use. The cities of Sursk, Penza, Alatyr’, and Iadrin are located on the Sura; the landing of Vasil’sursk is situated at the mouth. The river attracts many tourists.


Sura

 

(also surah), a chapter of the Koran. The Koran has 114 suras of varying length—from three to 286 ayat (verses). The title of each sura is taken from one of the words found in it, such as “The Cow,” “The Spoils,” “Thunder,” and “Women,” or from the letters with which the chapter begins.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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