The technology will be able to propel trains faster than existing methods such as the Maglev, which uses a levitation technology to lift the train cars above a track to eliminate surface drag
Direct measurements of the wind stress and indirect estimates derived from near-surface profiles of wind speed provided two different approaches to calculating the surface drag
coefficient, which was then related to the variations in upwind topography with wind direction.
Too much resistance can actually trip up a walker because of too much surface drag
With their narrow width and reduced surface drag
, today's micro-diameter carbon arrows penetrate better than aluminum shafts and standard-diameter carbon shafts of the same weight.
According to Shao and Yang , [u.sub.*]/[V.sub.w] is a weighted average of [C.sub.rg] and [C.sub.sg,] where [C.sub.rg] is the value of roughness element drag coefficient at [eta] = 0 and [C.sub.sg] is the value of surface drag
coefficient at [eta] = 0.
The surface drag
coefficient, [C.sub.D], is one of the primary parameters required by the models of the air-sea interaction.
Axley points out that current zonal models use well-understood jet-momentum relations for regimes involved in forced airflow (by jets or buoyancy), but the use of power-law viscosity relations away from jet-driven areas does not have a strong physical basis, since viscous losses related to surface drag
may dominate airflow.
The training system also includes one of the most advanced real-time cable simulations in the industry which can model the effects of deep ocean currents and even surface drag
along the sea bed.
Field drag plate measurements show a 50% reduction in surface drag
at 10 H and a 20% reduction at 30 H (Bradley and Mulhearn 1983).