Of most interest to CASPER is a special type of surface duct
: the evaporation duct (ED), which is almost always present over the oceans (Babin et al.
To demonstrate the behavior of radiowave in surface duct
, propagation loss is calculated with 5.8 GHz frequency.
Precautionary measures such as holding off from sonar exercises when surface ducts
are likely to form may keep the creatures from becoming startled and disoriented.