For the Nadym and Shatura samples, only the scenario of surface fire
was used for comparison of burned and unaffected soil samples.
Average species number per 1 [m.sup.2] significantly (p < 0.05) decreased within first year after the low severity surface fire
Fixation on the gunships likely led to a misperception as to the availability of fire support--naval surface fires
comes to mind.
In December 2005, more than a decade after the Navy and Marine Corps began to formulate requirements, agreement was reached on the capabilities needed for naval surface fire
For example, in the 1988 fires in Yellowstone, nearly 30% of the area within the fire perimeters was unburned, and another 15%-20% burned lightly (a surface fire
); 50%-55% of the area burned as a stand replacement fire.
Our data suggest that surface fire
may alter avian community structure by making the habitat less suitable for some species that previously existed there.
While we were confident the surface fire
was not a threat, it did raise our adrenaline level.
Even in intact forest, there will be patches of forest floor that are dry enough to allow a small "surface fire
" to feed on the dead leaves.
The area of standing forest subjected to surface fire
each year was also assessed.
The only direct record of surface fire
in original pine forests of northern Michigan and northern Wisconsin is contained in rare fire-scarred logging-era stumps and in fire-scarred trees that survived the cutover.
The surface fire
has destroyed plants and trunks of green trees over 17 hectares of land in Gandaf area.