Boussouf reported a low hot surface ignition
of pure R-32 at 1407[+ or -]18[degrees]F (763.9[+ or -]10[degrees]C).
The first mode is often called "surface ignition
", while the two other modes are the most likely causes of the LSPI (Low Speed Pre-Ignition) [3, 4].
quantified the increased surface ignition
likelihood of ethanol blends that also leads to the need to utilize colder spark plugs in engine applications using ethanol blends .
When the combustion process does not occur correctly, as in the mentioned phenomenon, or due to the presence of surface ignition
, it may generate serious damage to the engine, become a source of noise and vibration, and produce poor engine operating performance.
These grills include hand crafted construction, integrated illumination, hot surface ignition
, heat stabiliser and the Trident ProSear technology, which allows for precise grill temperature control to cook different foods at different temperatures at the same time.
Therefore, the Legacy will fit in tight equipment areas and is more easily moved." Robinson continues, "The Legacy self-cleaning hot surface ignition
and sealed controls ensure reliability in extreme hot and cold weather.
occurs when the temperature of the air-fuel mixture adjacent to a hot surface exceeds its self-ignition limit.
The new vehicles will use Westport's electronic, directly actuated, high-pressure natural gas fuel injectors, on-board compressor system, electronic controls and hot surface ignition
for development of the company's hot surface ignition
compressed natural gas (CNG) direct ignition (DI) technology.
The characteristics of LSPI resemble those of extreme knocking combustion and surface ignition
. A local ignition of the mixture occurs before spark timing and often triggers severe engine knock.
In 1954, the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) defined "surface ignition
" as "the initiation of a flame front by any hot surface other than the spark discharge prior to the arrival of the normal flame front.