method is most widely used all over the world (Mustafa et al., 2003).
(2008) (1649 kg ha-1), Rafiq (2007) (2122 kg ha-1 with surface irrigation
) and Singh et al.
In Africa, 80% of the most practiced irrigation technique in either full or partial control schemes is surface irrigation
. However, more than one million hectares of sprinkler irrigation have been reported, most of it being concentrated in Botswana, Libya, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Zimbabwe, South Africa and to a lesser degree in Kenya and Zambia.
This sprinkler system is particularly suited for sandy soils, where surface irrigation
may be inefficient or expensive or where erosion may be particularly hazardous.
Also 90 per cent of water was saved compared to traditional surface irrigation
doesn't have the best reputation for efficiency, but the majority of the world's acreage is surface irrigated," Clemmens says.
Vegetated Roof Profiles Vegetated Description Average Media Roof Type Thickness I Single media with synthetic moisture 2.5 to 3 inches management mat II Single media with synthetic sheet 3.5 to 4.5 inches drain III Dual media with granular drainage 4 to 6 inches layer IV Dual media with double-thick granular 6 to 10 inches * drainage layer for base flood irrigation V Dual media with granular drainage 6 to 10 inches * and synthetic water retention layers, combined with surface irrigation
* Thickness may increase to support larger plants.
Of the various forms of irrigation the greatest erosion occurs with surface irrigation
where concentrated flow in the furrows produces shear forces that detach and transport soil particles and any contaminants attached to those particles (Lentz et al.
With either sprinkler or surface irrigation
, the infiltration capacity and the permeability of the soil will determine how fast water can be applied.
Micro irrigation with fertigation was designated as one; microirrigation without fertigation, or sprinkler irrigation with fertigation as two; sprinkler irrigation used for pre-irrigation or throughout the irrigation season without fertigation as three; and surface irrigation
Intensification and mismanagement of surface irrigation
system led to low efficiency but, more importantly, it also brought in its wake the serious and complicated problems of waterlogging and salinity, leading to the degradation of land resources [Pinstrup-Anderson and Pandya-Lorch (1994)].