The active forces of the landslide include volume forces (e.g., weight and horizontal seismic forces) and the concentrated force or surface force on the outer contour ACB; the constrained forces include the slip surface normal
force [sigma](x)ds and the tangential force [tau](x)ds.
The fractal model of rough surface normal
contact stiffness, Journal of applied mechanics, 17(2): 31-36.
The Fe content in GBs, where the GB's surface normal
is parallel to the  direction of the adjacent grains (x-GB), is approximately 30 at%-40 at%.
Adaptive neighborhood selection for real-time surface normal
estimation from organized point cloud data using integral images.
As well as we have proposed to use one vector for each SPS instead of meshed surface normal
Then the surface normal
vector can be found out by the unit vector minus the gradient of x dimension and y dimension of the elevation map.
The measurements were performed at analytical beam incidence angles of 0[degrees] and 81[degrees] with respect to the sample surface normal
. Element concentration (at.
It is important to note from (2a), (2b), (2c), and (2d) that a scatterer motion perpendicular to the surface normal
results in boundary conditions similar to those of a fixed object.
For simplicity, we can also represent slope surface normal
[??]using spherical angles u, v as defined in Figure 2(b)
This image is a graphical illustration of the surface normal
angle differences between the two cast shapes.
1, we assume the unit surface normal
vector of the interface parallel to the z-axis: [??] = [??], the impedance boundary condition in (1) can be represented respectively as
In this equation, L is_thc vector to the light source, AMs the surface normal
, V is the veclqr to the viewer, M is the half angle vector between N and V, r^ is the diffuse reflectance; rs is the specular reflectance, a is the specular coefficient, kd is the relative amount of diffuse reflectance, and &s is the relative amount of specular reflectance.