The balance between surface complexation (grafting) and surface phase transformation (metal phosphonate phases)  depends strongly on the experimental conditions.
Ohman, "Balance between surface complexation and surface phase transformation at the alumina/water interface," Langmuir, vol.
Assuming that one molar energy of nanoparticles consists of the energy of one molar bulk phase ([E.sup.b.sub.m](A)) and the energy of one molar surface phase
([E.sup.s.sub.m](A)), (the superscript b and s are used to indicate bulk phase and surface phase
The superscripts indicate that the corresponding physical quantity is associated with the reservoir (R), or a bulk phase (L, V) or a surface phase
(SL, SV, LV denoting the corresponding two-phase interfaces).
Every sample had a surface phase
direct transmission factor of about 0.98.
All surface phases
were obtained in nanocrystalline size.