surrogate mother

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Related to surrogacy: Gestational surrogacy

surrogate mother,

a woman who agrees, usually by contract and for a fee, to bear a child for a couple who are childless because the wife is infertile or physically incapable of carrying a developing fetus. Often the surrogate mother is the biological mother of the child, conceiving it by means of artificial inseminationartificial insemination,
technique involving the artificial injection of sperm-containing semen from a male into a female to cause pregnancy. Artificial insemination is often used in animals to multiply the possible offspring of a prized animal and for the breeding of endangered
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 with sperm from the husband. In gestational surrogacy, the wife is fertile but incapable of carrying a growing fetus; the child is conceived by in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization
(IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother's body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother's body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a
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 using the wife's eggs and her husband's sperm, and the resulting embryo is implanted in the surrogate mother's uterus.

Surrogate motherhood has raised complex ethical and legal issues, and lawsuits over custody after the child's birth have resulted from both types of surrogacy. In the highly publicized Baby M case (1986–88), Mary Beth Whitehead, the surrogate (and biological) mother, sued William and Elizabeth Stern, the baby's father and his wife, for custody of the child. Although the surrogate mother was not awarded custody in the Baby M case, she was granted visitation rights. Several European countries and a number of states have passed laws banning paid surrogacy.

References in periodicals archive ?
If we don't have the law to manage it, surrogacy could negatively affect women and children if it is done with the intention of business and human trafficking,' he said.
Surrogacy arrangements are legal in the UK but it is against the law to recruit a surrogate on a commercial basis.
Opposition Kuomintang legislator Chen Yimin pointed out that without legalizing surrogacy, women who were born without uterus will be forced to go through the trouble of having to travel to other countries in order to search for surrogates in secrecy.
With many women leaving it later in life to start families, same sex marriages and advances in medical science Surrogacy is becoming an increasing option for those families for whom IVF or other options are unsuitable.
The figures do not include children born through surrogacy in the US and Canada as they t n he ey are given passports from those countries when they are born.
The panel has argued that if surrogacy allows economically disenfranchised women to earn a remuneration that is otherwise beyond their reach, which they often invest in educating their children or launch small businesses, why should they be deprived of this choice?
Obviously surrogacy can be harmful to women involved, both of them can suffer physical and emotional pain.
Given the requirements and the cost the clinic attaches to sex surrogacy -- up to $2,000 a month, well over half the average Israeli salary -- few sign up in search of casual sex, according to current and former staffers.
Drawing on empirical research of Mexico's surrogacy business, I question in the third section how the way whiteness is (re-)produced, desired, and valued in this industry is linked to biopolitical ideas of white hegemony.
If you need these medications for your own health and safety, it may be best to look into having a baby through surrogacy.
The European Parliament however, called surrogacy an "exploitation of the female body and her reproductive organs.
For childless couples who want to add more names in their family or make the sense of family complete, surrogacy and egg donors are the best services offered in world-class treatment centres in the supervision and observation of qualified health care specialists and IVF specialists.