surrogate mother

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Related to surrogacy: Gestational surrogacy

surrogate mother,

a woman who agrees, usually by contract and for a fee, to bear a child for a couple who are childless because the wife is infertile or physically incapable of carrying a developing fetus. Often the surrogate mother is the biological mother of the child, conceiving it by means of artificial inseminationartificial insemination,
technique involving the artificial injection of sperm-containing semen from a male into a female to cause pregnancy. Artificial insemination is often used in animals to multiply the possible offspring of a prized animal and for the breeding of endangered
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 with sperm from the husband. In gestational surrogacy, the wife is fertile but incapable of carrying a growing fetus; the child is conceived by in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization
(IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother's body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother's body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a
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 using the wife's eggs and her husband's sperm, and the resulting embryo is implanted in the surrogate mother's uterus.

Surrogate motherhood has raised complex ethical and legal issues, and lawsuits over custody after the child's birth have resulted from both types of surrogacy. In the highly publicized Baby M case (1986–88), Mary Beth Whitehead, the surrogate (and biological) mother, sued William and Elizabeth Stern, the baby's father and his wife, for custody of the child. Although the surrogate mother was not awarded custody in the Baby M case, she was granted visitation rights. Several European countries and a number of states have passed laws banning paid surrogacy.

References in periodicals archive ?
In fact, they are so flawed, that the Scottish Law Commission and the Law Commission of England and Wales (independent bodies established to make recommendations to government to reform the law in England and Wales and in Scotland) are conducting a public consultation on their provisional proposals to reform the law governing surrogacy.
The Bill allows surrogacy for couples who suffer from proven infertility and says they should have a 'certificate of essentiality' and a 'certificate of eligibility' issued by the appropriate authorities.The Bill says surrogacy clinics cannot undertake surrogacy related procedures unless they are registered by the appropriate authority.
Despite the growing social acceptance of surrogacy, which has been normalized by international celebrities such as Kim Kardashian and Elton John, the practice is still prohibited in most countries.
With surrogacy, a child can have two fathers: (1) the biological and (2) the commissioning.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SURROGACY? FIRSTLY, 'host' or 'gestational' surrogacy is when the surrogate woman's eggs are not used, and instead an embryo is transferred to the surrogate.
Furthermore, if the surrogate is married, or in a civil partnership at the time she starts to carry the child - her spouse will legally be the child's second parent (unless they didn't consent to the surrogacy).
Most of the studies reported better prenatal outcomes in surrogacy including hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, placenta previa, preterm labor and lower birth weight in comparison to IVF cycles of their own uterus.
The review was announced by the Government in January last year to provide a foundation for updating Western Australia's ART and surrogacy legislation.
ARTbaby Surrogacy Centre Georgia provides all surrogacy solutions under one roof including IVF, Egg/Sperm donors/Donation, Surrogate mother, ICSI, IUI since 2011.
For Indian women like Vandana, a 32-year-old from Gujarat who has two children of her own, surrogacy provides an annual income several times higher than what she previously earned as a domestic worker.
The cost of four surrogacies in California, where commercial surrogacy is legal, was denied as the practice is illegal in the UK.