surrogate mother

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surrogate mother,

a woman who agrees, usually by contract and for a fee, to bear a child for a couple who are childless because the wife is infertile or physically incapable of carrying a developing fetus. Often the surrogate mother is the biological mother of the child, conceiving it by means of artificial inseminationartificial insemination,
technique involving the artificial injection of sperm-containing semen from a male into a female to cause pregnancy. Artificial insemination is often used in animals to multiply the possible offspring of a prized animal and for the breeding of endangered
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 with sperm from the husband. In gestational surrogacy, the wife is fertile but incapable of carrying a growing fetus; the child is conceived by in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization
(IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother's body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother's body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a
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 using the wife's eggs and her husband's sperm, and the resulting embryo is implanted in the surrogate mother's uterus.

Surrogate motherhood has raised complex ethical and legal issues, and lawsuits over custody after the child's birth have resulted from both types of surrogacy. In the highly publicized Baby M case (1986–88), Mary Beth Whitehead, the surrogate (and biological) mother, sued William and Elizabeth Stern, the baby's father and his wife, for custody of the child. Although the surrogate mother was not awarded custody in the Baby M case, she was granted visitation rights. Several European countries and a number of states have passed laws banning paid surrogacy.

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References in periodicals archive ?
The Bill seeks to prohibit exploitation of surrogate mothers and children born through surrogacy and allows "ethical surrogacy" to the needy infertile Indian couples.
The Filipinas, 32-year-old 'Ria' and 28-year-old 'Ellie,' who were former overseas Filipino workers (OFWs), reportedly confessed that they agreed to become surrogate mothers because they needed the money to support their families.
As demand from China fuels Cambodia's 'womb for rent' industry, surrogate mothers fear the law
At face value, Ex Parte KAF is a typical surrogacy confirmation application: the applicants were the commissioning mother and father (a married couple) and the surrogate mother and her life partner.
The surrogate mother is at a higher risk for postpartum complications: hemorrhaging and exhaustion.
Originally, Cyprus police said they had received information from Interpol Moscow that the surrogate mother had put the baby up for sale for $13,454.
The parentage of the child is deliberately split between gamete providers, the surrogate mother and the intended parent(s).
The surrogate mother holds responsibility for her health and the child's health.
#Twins" Now proud dads to their two sons, the birth comes three years after a surrogate mother miscarried their unborn child.
Thus, she resorted to the services of a volunteer surrogate mother, an Israeli woman who conceived via artificial insemination performed in India using sperm donated by an Israeli man, and returned to Israel where she gave birth to a healthy girl.
Many surrogacy cases today are commercially oriented ones where the surrogate mother is paid for her services' of carrying and giving birth to a baby.