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suspension, in vehicles
suspension, in chemistry
of vehicles, the system of parts and mechanisms to connect the support elements (wheels, rollers, or skis) to the body of the vehicle, designed to reduce the dynamic load and ensure even distribution of the load to the support elements during movement, with a secondary purpose of increasing the traction characteristics of the vehicle.
There are three types of suspension—rigid, semirigid, and soft. With rigid suspension, which is used for tracklaying hoisting cranes, excavators, peat combines, and other vehicles with traveling speeds of not more than 3-4 km/hr, the axles of the support rollers are secured directly to the frame without any intermediary moving parts. With semirigid suspension, which is used on most types of tractors, the support rollers are mounted on special frames (tracklaying wagons), which are usually connected to the frame by a hinge in back and an elastic element, such as a spring, in front or by elastic elements both front and back. Soft, or elastic, suspension, which is used for cars, other high-speed vehicles, and some kinds of tractors, has a large reserve of potential energy— that is, considerable motion and quite sufficient rigidity.
In terms of design, motor vehicle suspension may be conventional or independent. In conventional suspension a rigid bar (the front axle or the rear axle housing) connects the elastic elements with the wheels. In independent suspension, there is a special guide apparatus (rocker arms or posts) for each elastic element that connects the suspended part of the vehicle with a wheel. Therefore, the right and left wheels of the same axle have independent vertical movement.
A vehicle may have flat spring, coil spring, torsion bar, and pneumatic suspensions. Flat, or leaf, springs are usually used in the conventional suspension of trucks and in the rear suspension of certain cars. Elastic elements in the form of coil springs and torsion bars are used in the independent front suspension of cars. The elastic elements used in the pneumatic suspension of buses, such as the LAZ-695, are cylinders filled with compressed air whose pressure is maintained by a regulator that increases the delivery of compressed air from the pneumatic system when the load on the cylinder increases, thus ensuring consistent road clearance. To lessen the amplitude of rocking and to damp it quickly, shock absorbers are included in the suspension system. The movement of the suspension is restricted by rubber limiters. The suspension systems of some vehicles are equipped with stabilizers to limit pitching on turns and body swaying while the vehicle is moving.
The suspension of railroad rolling stock—locomotives and railroad cars— is often called spring suspension; it includes elastic elements, such as flat springs (bearing, full elliptic, air, and rubber) and coil springs (helical, ring, disc, and others), as well as hydraulic and friction shock absorbers to restrict vibration. The suspension may have one, two, or three stages depending on the required degree of suppression of the forces from the running gear of the locomotive or railroad car that are acting on the frame.
I. G. GERTSKIS, A. A. SABININ, AND B. N. POKROVSKII
a disperse system consisting of solid particles (the dispersed phase) distributed in a liquid dispersion medium. Suspensions are coarsely disperse systems with particle sizes of 10–4 cm and larger. Structureless suspensions are unstable with regard to sedimentation, since the particles are precipitated by gravity. (In Russian, suspensions in which the particles settle very slowly are sometimes called vzvesi rather than suspenzii.)
Suspensions can be formed by dispersing solids in liquid mediums or by mixing dry powders with liquids. They also arise from the aggregation of colloid particles during coagulation or condensation. In nature, suspensions are formed when soils are eroded by water or when bodies of water are contaminated by atmospheric dust. Pulp and drilling mud are typical suspensions.
Suspensions are widely used in construction and in the manufacture of ceramics, plastics, paints, varnishes, and paper. Some fertilizers and pesticides and many drugs are used in the form of suspensions.
L. A. SHITS