Swallowing

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Related to swallowing disorders: dysphagia, Swallowing difficulties

Swallowing

 

a complex reflex act in which food is carried from the oral cavity to the esophagus and stomach by the contraction of some muscles and the relaxation of others.

In vertebrates and man, the swallowing reflex arises upon stimulation of the sensitive endings of the trigeminal, superior and inferior laryngeal, and glossopharyngeal nerves in the mucous membrane of the soft palate. The swallowing center is located on the floor of the fourth ventricle in the medulla oblongata. The first phase of swallowing is voluntary. The lump of chewed food is pushed into the pharynx by movements of the cheeks and tongue. Contraction of the palatine arches and radix linguae, closure of the nasopharyngeal cavity, and covering of the entrance to the larynx by the epiglottis allow the bolus to be pushed only into the opening of the esophagus, whose peristaltic movements provide for its further passage. Swallowing ends with relaxation of the muscular closure and entrance to the stomach. Liquid passes through the esophagus under the influence of pressure created in the pharynx and its own weight.

References in periodicals archive ?
According to the company, the VARIBAR products are oral agents that provide adequate visibility of anatomical structures and the swallowing process during the MBS examination, and simulate different liquid and food consistencies to assess the type and severity of the swallowing disorder.
With such a large number of patients affected by swallowing disorders, the availability of reliable and understandable literature that addresses treatment options would be of great importance.
The multidisciplinary study of 'swallowing and swallowing disorders' has evolved over the past thirty years, but the coordinated assessment and treatment of patients with swallowing disorders began in the late 1970s when the Modified Barium Swallow Study (MBSS) also sometimes called a Video-fluoroscopy was introduced.
Currently, the VA has been involved in a number of projects to improve clinical care for veterans with swallowing disorders (VHA Directive 2006-032).
The study found that many LTC residents have swallowing disorders that aren't recognized by the facilities.
Swallowing disorders are caused by structural or functional abnormalities in the oropharynx, esophagus and nervous system caused by a myriad of underlying pathologies such as stroke, trauma, cancer, neuromuscular disease and genetic mutation.
Feeding and swallowing disorders may appear in a variety of ways.
Infections with rapidly growing mycobacteria (formerly Runyon group IV) have been reported to be associated with swallowing disorders and lipoid pneumonia.
The majority of elderly patients receive tube feeding for swallowing disorders and a significant proportion need this on a long-term basis.
It is important to understand the need to diagnose and treat swallowing disorders, since unrecognized dysphagia may lead to multiple health problems, such as potential for repeated aspiration pneumonia, a condition that may be life threatening, and poor nutritional and hydration status.