The SMU was programmed to sweep voltage
from 0 V to 20 V in 115 steps and to measure the resulting current in a four-wire configuration.
The potentiostat carries out the LPR test using electrical relays, digital-to-analog converters, and an operational amplifier, releasing a sweep voltage
of between -20mV and +20mV regarding the half-cell potential, with an increase of 10mV in one-second intervals.
As shown in Figure 4(b), the dc sweep voltage
was scanned as -10 V [right arrow] 0 V [right arrow] 10 V [right arrow] 0 V [right arrow] -10 V with different voltage variation step value of 50 mV, 100 mV, 150 mV, 200 mV, and 250 mV in room air atmosphere with 85% RH, respectively.
Using a sweep voltage range of [+ or -] 10 V, the C-V memory window of 1.6 V can be achieved due to the electron trapping (not shown here).
The [I.sub.DS] versus [V.sub.GS] characteristic was first measured with a sweep voltage from -3 V to 3 V to determine the original threshold voltage.
The collector SMU is set to sweep voltage
and measure current.
To further understand the formation of conducting filaments within the Si[O.sub.x] film, two devices had the same sweep voltage
applied at the same time (Figure 1(b)), while their resistance was recorded.
For a perfect second-order loop with active integrator, a constant current [I.sub.SW] is inserted to create a triangle sweep voltage
with switching polarities.
Figure 10 shows I-V curves of Ag/GOT/Ag measured at different sweep voltages
, a represented example.