These include: Advanced cement bond logging and logging through multiple casings LWIV riserless P&A for subsea wells Next generation tubing and casing removal solutions Improved section milling tooling New barriers as an alternative to cement, like the use of natural barriers such as swelling shale and swelling clay
or squeezing salt Thermite and bismuth alloy plugs Finally, standard forms are emerging for the decommissioning market.
Alteration of swelling clay
minerals by acid activation, Applied Clay Science 44(1-2): 105-115.
of Boise, Idaho Amount: $2,399,730.90 Project: Elephant Butte swelling clay
Gerard, "Grafting of swelling clay
materials with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane," Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol.
However, some previous research noted that cracking and hydraulic conductivity of swelling clay
or rocks are controlled by plasticity and swelling .
Montmorillonite mineral is regarded as swelling clay
for the reason that water molecules easily enter the interlayer along the silicon-oxygen plane, which will increase the distance between the layers and causing the volume expansion.
The firm required additional time to overcome difficulties of squeezing salt and a swelling clay
section which required the running of an extra casing interval.
However, it still remains one of the most difficult measurements to perform with a high degree of accuracy in swelling clay
soils, particularly at the wet end.
If swelling clay
minerals occur in the fractures, expansion of the clays may cause the fractures to close, reducing the water movement along the fractures.
Nitrate and chloride leaching in a swelling clay