The species of Poeciliidae family including guppy, molly, red swordtail and platies (Xiphophorus msculstus) are the most popular ornamental fish produced in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, India and China; consequently, the broodstock nutrition is considered as an important factor in the reproductive performance in most fish species (8).
Lower protein levels (20%) produce lower protein content in muscle and ovary tissue in swordtail (7,8), which could be explained by the utilization of the body protein reserves and hence deficiency in protein for corporal growth and oocyte development.
Conspecific mate recognition in swordtails, Xiphophorus nigrensis and X.
Female preference for male sword length in the green swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri (Pisces: Poeciliidae).
In 1988, large males were discovered in three tandemly located, natural populations of the pygmy swordtail (Morris and Ryan 1995).
Female preference predates the evolution of the sword in swordtail fish.
A genetic polymorphism in the swordtail
Xiphophorus nigrensis: testing the prediction on equal fitnesses.
Basolo (1990) used parsimony to reconstruct ancestral states for male swords and female preference for male swords onto a preliminary phylogeny for swordtails and platies.
Character definitions, sexual selection and the evolution of swordtails.
Besides all these, swordtail fish, which are of great importance among aquarium fish, are also among species with financial value due to their colors and tail structures (Tamaru et al.
In phenoxyethanol application, induction phase times of swordtail fish were shown in Figure 3A and total induction times were shown in Figure 3B.
Genetic basis for alternative reproductive tactics in the pygmy swordtail
, Xiphophorus nigrensis.