Sympathomimetic


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

sympathomimetic

[¦sim·pə·thō·mə′med·ik]
(pharmacology)
Having the ability to produce physiologic changes similar to those caused by action of the sympathetic nervous system.

Sympathomimetic

 

a pharmacological substance whose action basically coincides with the effects of the excitation of the sympathetic nervous system, including the constriction of blood vessels and the dilatation of bronchi. Inasmuch as sympathomimetics act on adrenergic receptors, that is, on receptor formations sensitive to norepinephrine and adrenaline, they are conventionally called adrenomimetics.

Sympathomimetics may be direct or indirect. Direct sympathomimetics act directly on adrenergic structures; they include norepinephrine, adrenaline, and Adrianol (also called sympa-thol). Indirect sympathomimetics either promote the release or block the capture of a mediator; they include Tyramine, Phena-mine (also called amphetamine), ephedrine, and imizin (also called imipramine). Indirect sympathomimetics cause the quantity of a mediator to increase and thereby produce sympathomimetic effects.

In clinical practice adrenaline, norepinephrine, and Adrianol are used locally to constrict blood vessels during hemorrhaging. They are also used to increase arterial pressure in cases of collapse. Ephedrine is used to arrest asthma attacks and to constrict peripheral vessels (for example, it is applied directly to the nose in cases of a cold). Phenamine is characterized by peripheral sympathomimetic action—for example, it constricts blood vessels and increases systole. It also exerts a stimulating effect on the central nervous system and consequently is used to excite nervous activity. Imizin is pharmacologically an antidepressant and is therefore used in the treatment of nervous and mental disorders accompanied by depression.

REFERENCES

Zakusov, V. V. Farmakologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.
Anichkov, S. V. Izbiratel’noe deistvie mediatornykh sredstv. Leningrad, 1974.
Goodman, L. S., and A. Gilman. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 3rd ed. New York-London-Toronto, 1965.

V. V. ZAKUSOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Furthermore, it can be used as a clinical biomarker in cardiotoxicities related to sympathomimetics and anticancer drugs and diseases including; cardiac injury, unstable angina, minimal infarct, left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, blunt trauma, sepsis, moderate renal disease, renal failure and diabetes mellitus.
An exaggerated response to sympathomimetic drugs and arrhythmias is common (4), so caution should be exercised when using ephedrine (4).
No interference was detected in any of the enriched samples containing other sympathomimetic amines or in any of the authentic samples tested that contained the other drugs of abuse (AM, MA, cannabis, and/or cocaine).
Sympathomimetic drugs including epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine phenylephrine and ephedrine are widely used in the ICU and are reported to cause AACG in several case reports.
Beta-blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (acebutolol, alprenolol, oxprenolol, pindo1ol) appear to be ineffective for migraine prevention.
ISO is a sympathomimetic agent and [beta]-adrenergic receptor agonist that causes acute cardiac injury at high doses (3).
Unlike sympathomimetic drugs and ephedrine, however, green tea extracts have not been shown to increase heart rate and are not associated with adverse cardiovascular effects.
by reversing dilation of blood vessels through the use of sympathomimetic amines or beta-adrenergic blockers (e.
Overdose with a sympathomimetic agent such as a sibling's attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medication (dextroamphetamine) or an illicit substance such as cocaine, methamphetamine, or Ecstasy (MDMA).
As a tricyclic antidepressant, desipramine has sympathomimetic and anticholinergic effects, both of which are useful in suppressing vestibular symptoms.
Avoiding unsuspected respiratory side-effects of topical timolol with cardioselective or sympathomimetic agents.
Seri's major areas of research interest include the mechanisms of action of the cardiovascular, renal and endocrine effects of dopamine and other sympathomimetic amines; developmental-regulation of the dopaminergic system in the neonate; short-term regulation of the Na+, K+-ATPase enzyme by catecholamines; pathophysiology and management of neonatal shock; and organ blood flow and its autoregulation in the critically-ill neonate.