cleft

(redirected from synaptic cleft)
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Related to synaptic cleft: postsynaptic membrane

cleft

1. a fissure or crevice
2. (of leaves) having one or more incisions reaching nearly to the midrib
References in periodicals archive ?
(4),(5) When a presynaptic neuron releases excitatory neurotransmitters (such as glutamate) into the synaptic cleft, some of them bind to ion channels that open to allow an influx of positively charged ions, which generates an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) (Fig.
Astrocytes can also release these neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, a phenomenon called gliotransmission [9, 17, 46, 47].
As a selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), duloxetine acts at the molecular level to block the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine from synaptic clefts. Specifically, the medication blocks the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake transporters, as well as the norepinephrine transporters, of pre-synaptic neurons.
Compared with the sham group, there were significantly fewer synapses, an increased synaptic cleft width, thinner postsynaptic densities, shorter synaptic active zones, decreased synaptic cleft curvature, significantly fewer perforated synapses, and significantly more flat synapses in the vehicle group (all p < 0.01, Figure 3).
On the other side, once the DAT expression increased, the synaptic cleft DA would be taken into the synaptic neuron by DAT [64].
There are several mechanisms of kinetic characters of mIPSCs induced by etomidate exposure: like propofol, etomidate might affect the receptor subunits co-assemble, subunits translocation, synaptic cleft distance enlargement or might directly activate GABA[sub]A receptors.
The drastic (82.74%) [TOF.sub.fade] caused by cisatracurium seems to exhibit an amount of adenosine in the synaptic cleft which might be lower than that extant during 100% Fade, as at 50 Hz there is a higher activation of presynaptic [M.sub.1] receptors by acetylcholine.
Subsequently, neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft and diffuses to the postsynaptic membrane to activate neurotransmitter receptors.
These calcium ions bind to these vesicles allowing them to fuse with the presynaptic membrane and release neurotransmitters into synaptic cleft through the fusion pores present on the membrane surface.
1) GLUTAMATE RELEASE AT SYNAPSE UP TO NO DIFFUSION: When an excitatory impulse, anterograde neurotransmission (ANT), spreads over the presynaptic terminal, the membrane depolarization causes glutamate release to synaptic cleft. Glutamate then activates NMDA receptors [~50 NMDA receptors dispersed over a 400-nm-diameter postsynaptic density (1) at postsynaptic membrane which further propagates excitatory impulse to cell body and also it activates calcium and calmodulin to bind with each other (2) and causes release of nitric oxide (NO) from nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) (One NOS molecule generates 20 NO molecules per second).
When an action potential travels along a nerve and arrives at the axon terminal, it triggers the secretion of a neurotransmitter that allows the passage of a signal from one neuron to its neighbour via the synaptic cleft. Binding of a neurotransmitter to its receptor on a neighbouring cell's membrane (the post-synaptic membrane) causes opening of ion channels.
This allows serotonin to accumulate in synaptic cleft and affects post-synaptic neuron.