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(sĭnĕk`dəkē), figure of speech, a species of metaphormetaphor
[Gr.,=transfer], in rhetoric, a figure of speech in which one class of things is referred to as if it belonged to another class. Whereas a simile states that A is like B, a metaphor states that A is B or substitutes B for A.
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, in which a part of a person or thing is used to designate the whole—thus, "The house was built by 40 hands" for "The house was built by 20 people." See metonymymetonymy
, figure of speech in which an attribute of a thing or something closely related to it is substituted for the thing itself. Thus, "sweat" can mean "hard labor," and "Capitol Hill" represents the U.S. Congress.
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a figure of speech and variant of metonymy by which the whole is made known by means of a part. There are two types of synecdoche. In the first, the whole is represented by a, part, which replaces the whole. For example, “Hey, beard! how can I get from here to Pliushkin’s?” (N. Gogol). Here the meanings of “man with a beard,” “bearded one” (“villein”), and “beard” are combined. In the second type of synecdoche, one grammatical number is used instead of the other: “And until dawn the Frenchman [the French] could be heard rejoicing” (M. Iu. Lermontov).

References in periodicals archive ?
2) Read as deploying the ironic use of whiteness within the synecdoche, the screenplay attains visibility for the victims who, had they not been white and married to a white British diplomat John Quayle, would not have been a convincing or "worthy" cause.
As characters they are the products, through synecdoche, of such speech acts: they exist through the foundational structuring events of the illocutionary acts through which our further sense of them as people capable of suffering and inflicting pain--of possessing, as we like to think after Descartes, interiority--is constructed.
In fact, you may think of holoschemes as series of figures used as significant narrative units to form a text's narrative grid, thus functioning as large-scale synecdoche .
This year's major category winners were Fox Searchlight Pictures' The Wrestler, which won Best Feature, Best Male Lead (Mickey Rourke), and Best Cinematography (Maryse Alberti); The Weinstein Company's Vicky Cristina Barcelona, which won Best Screenplay (Woody Allen), and Best Supporting Female (Penelope Cruz); Overture Films' The Visitor, which won Best Director (Tom McCarthy); Sony Pictures Classics' Synecdoche, New York, which won Best First Feature and the Robert Altman Award, Frozen River, which won Best Female Lead (Melissa Leo); and The Class, which won Best Foreign Film; IFC Films' In Search of a Midnight Kiss, which won the John Cassavetes Award for the Best Feature made for under $500,000; and Magnolia Pictures Man on Wire, which won Best Documentary.
Clint Eastwood's competition offering, Changeling, starring Angelina Jolie as a mother searching for her missing child, had been among the more serious Hollywood contenders, beside Charlie Kaufman's Synecdoche, New York.
Furthermore, Flippen frames this biography as a synecdoche for the growing partisan divide and bitter extremism of Washington politics: movement politics, personal attacks, and ideological purity replacing the compromises and bipartisanship of Washington at Train's zenith.
If pressed for a bit more detail, one might appeal to Thomas Huxley's quarrel with Samuel Wilberforce or John Tyndall's assault on miracles during the prayer-gauge debate as a kind of historiographical synecdoche.
Articles to appear in the first issues of JSAM include Christopher Reynolds on Porgy and Bess, Denise Von Glahn and Michael Broyles on re-dating the beginnings of musical modernism, Leta Miller on race and the American Federation of Musicians, Teresa Magdanz on "Sobre las Olas" as cultural synecdoche, Benjamin Givan on McCoy Tyner and "Bessie's Blues", and Laurie Stras on music of the Boswell Sisters.
But this, too, may be a case of cultural synecdoche.
In his essay "The Uncanny" (1925) Freud used the rhetorical figure of synecdoche when addressing the eerie sensation one experiences when confronted with severed or absent body parts.
Battles of kitchens become a synecdoche of the battles of and for lands and worlds.
They use the attitudes and careers of the Bush family as a synecdoche for changes in the Republican Party during the last century.