Facial biofeedback training in front of a mirror (mime therapy) and electromyographic biofeedback training are successful in preventing synkinesis
Unilateral or bilateral laryngeal synkinesis
would probably end any professional singing career, but it is worthy of discussion for completeness of this topic.
Selective reinnervation of the midfacial branches (zygomatic or buccal) can result in strong smile recovery with minimal risk of facial synkinesis
is the involuntary movement of one set of muscles when the patient tries to move another set of muscles.
Grade III Obvious weakness, but not disfiguring May not be able to lift eyebrow Complete eye closure and strong but asymmetrical mouth movement Obvious, but not disfiguring synkinesis
, mass movement or spasm
Incomplete recovery is also associated with facial synkinesis
due to giant motor unit development when intact nerve fibers predominate over adjacent muscle fibers whose nerve innervation has had incomplete recovery.
Typical features of Kallmann syndrome include anosmia, infertility, synkinesis
, and hypodontia.
Early use of corticosteroid therapy results in less autonomic synkinesis
and possibly improved rates of recovery in adults (strength of recommendation: C); there is no proven benefit in children (SOR: B).
In our studies of more than 100 children with language impairment, neurologic exams have demonstrated a high incidence of obligatory synkinesis
and fine-motor impairments, as well as a higher than expected incidence of hyperreflexia, oromotor apraxia, gross motor impairment, and sensory deficits, compared with their agematched controls," said Dr.
Laryngeal electromyography revealed a 50% decrease in recruitment of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and a 70 to 80% decrease in the right RLN without significant synkinesis
The rehabilitation program for facial palsy includes electrical stimulation, infrared radiation, and facial neuromuscular exercises including auto massage, relaxation exercises, inhibition of synkinesis
, co-ordination exercises, or emotional expression exercises.
Facial neuromuscular retraining for oral synkinesis