The first step of the synoptic model, specification of the goal, presents the biggest problem for the theory.
183) In part, agencies champion the synoptic model because it increases their relative authority over others.
228) The pluralist model provided a tremendous perceived advantage over a synoptic model that was perceived as biased.
After all, under the synoptic model citizen participation serves only to exchange information.
Simply put, the synoptic model is incapable of dealing with certain types of cultural concerns.
To be sure, citizens often break out of the synoptic model to address their concerns, but generally only by adopting a pluralist orientation.
393, 396-99, 413-21 (1981) (describing the synoptic model as "comprehensive rationality").
Political bargaining and objective science also correspond, respectively, to the pluralist and synoptic models introduced briefly in Part II.