Crosswinds are mostly influenced by the pressure gradient at the mesoscale and synoptic scale
. The main factor to be aware of is the crosswind component and your airplane's maximum demonstrated component.
As first demonstrated by Lorenz (1969), there exists a limit of predictability beyond which further increases of skill are unattainable due to the cascading of errors up to the synoptic scale
. (2) There were a number of studies examining the limits of predictability for tropical cyclone tracks conducted in the late 1980s to the early 2000s, but these either relied on climatology, statistical techniques, or simplified dynamical models.
The influence of synoptic scale
flow on sea breeze induced surface winds and calm zones.
In addition to LES, lake-enhanced snowfall can occur when synoptic scale
systems, driven by quasigeostrophic forcing, move over the GLB.
Although the question of station representativeness has been studied at a synoptic scale
for longer timescales (e.g., Climate Normals: Vose and Menne, 2004), the extent to which data from existing meteorological stations can be spatially extrapolated across northern alpine environments at daily to monthly timescales is not clear.
Modelling local and synoptic scale
influences on ozone concentrations in a topographically complex region of Southern Italy, Atmospheric Environment., 43: 4424-4434.
patterns responsible for severe snowfall episodes have been used in many mountainous areas to define atmospheric conditions under which these phenomena occur [23, 24].
Moreover we attempted to identify and understand the various mesoscale to synoptic scale
system and their interaction for the formation of convective cells which lead to EHRE.
The synoptic scale
corresponds to the typical size of mid-latitude high and low pressure systems (approximately a horizontal length of 1,000 km or 620 miles).
atmospheric circulation in Estonia is described in greater detail in , where the classification of the trajectories of the cyclones that influence weather in Estonia can be found.
* Synoptic scale
: regional NWP analyses and manual charts