Firstly, the authors mentioned that "Independent sample t-test
was applied to assess association between average usage of mobile medical application and academic performance and a p-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant." Literature indicates, "the independent t-test
, is an inferential statistical test that determines whether there is a statistically significant difference between the means in two unrelated groups."2 So I want to ask how did the authors calculate the association by applying Independent sample t-test
independent samples t-test
: comparison of the means of two independent samples on the same continuous data; e.g., determine a significant difference in high school GPAs of males and females
For comparing pre- and post-test scores, Paired Student's t-test
was used while for comparing the perceptions of male and female students unpaired Student's t-test
was used and P values were calculated using SPSS 21.
The study used independent samples t-test
in order to test the gender differences.
The results of independent sample t-test
show a significant difference between the pre-test and post -test scores of experimental group after treatment.
The chi-square test was performed to compare dichotomous variables, while differences between the mean (or median) values of continuous variables were assessed using Student's t-test
or the Mann--Whitney test, the latter being used in the case of variables with non-Gaussian distribution.
The statistical techniques; mean, standard deviation, t-test
and ANOVA were use in the data analysis process.
According to normality test in the study, independent t-test
in independent groups and dependent t-test
in dependent groups have been used.
Baseline characteristics were compared using either t-test
or chi-square (or Fisher's exact) test as appropriate.
Comparisons between continuous variables used an independent two-tailed t-test
. Comparisons of symptom scores before and after treatment used a paired two-tailed t-test
Some of the procedures used included the Mann-Whitney U test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, independent samples t-test
, and Kruskal-Wallis H test.