Further laboratory experimentation using in vitro and in vivo infection models is needed to link outcomes with novel, bioinformatically determined genetic variation, such as discrete rearrangements and tandem duplications
. Potential differences in antigen expression resulting from these changes in gene organization, which may influence the burden of disease, remain untested.
in animal mitochondrial DNAs: variation in incidence and gene content among lizards.
Wilson et al., "FLT3 internal tandem duplication
mutations in adult acute myeloid leukaemia define a high-risk group," British Journal of Haematology, vol.
Association between the E-26 transformation-specific related gene expression level and internal tandem duplication
of the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene
Kadapakkam et al., "Constitutional tandem duplication
of 9q34 that truncates EHMT1 in a child with ganglioglioma," Pediatric Blood & Cancer, vol.
Allen et al., "The impact of FLT3 internal tandem duplication
mutant level, number, size, and interaction with NPM1 mutations in a large cohort of young adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia," Blood, vol.
A set of mutations termed "internal tandem duplications
" (ITD) affecting the exon 11 of the c-kit gene has been associated with the development of some mast cell tumors in dogs (LONDON et al., 1999; DOWNING et al., 2002; ZEMKE et al., 2002).
IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia and confer adverse prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia with NPM1 mutation without FLT3 internal tandem duplication
. J Clin Oncol.
 Pfeiffer et al (1992) reported de novo inverted tandem duplication
of 12pl1.2 -p13.3 in a child with ACS.
Syntenic analysis revealed that ZmCLO gene family resulted from segmental and tandem duplication
, by which many genes or gene families were rapidly expanded (Partridge and Murphy, 2009; Schnable et al., 2009; Wei et al., 2011; Hu et al., 2013).To determine whether paralog pairs underwent adaptive evolution, JCoDA (Steinway et al., 2010) was used to calculate the Ka/Ks values of 9 paralog pairs in three species.
Kojima et al., "Prognostic significance of FLT3 internal tandem duplication
and NPM1 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia in an unselected patient population," International Journal of Hematology, vol.
These mutations were shown to be internal tandem duplication
(ITDs), mainly involving a tyrosine rich stretch at the end of exon 14 (587-NEYFYVDFREYEYD-560), coding for the juxtamembrane (JM) domain of the receptor (Fig.