Key words: DEM, Surface Roughness, Slope, Tangential Curvature, Incision, Gilgit-Baltistan.
Pakistan) and DEM derived aspect, slope, tangential curvature, flat area, surface area and the surface area ratio mapsreveal that areas with highsurface roughness correspondtorapidvariations in slope gradients and orientations.These abrupt variations in the GB regionare due to theextremely incisedvalleys of Hunza, Ghanche, upper Skardu, Ghizer and near RSF in upper Astore with the exception of Deosai Plateau having less incised areas.
Using GIS data exploration techniques, nine data layers (percent slope, slope length, profile curvature, tangential curvature, mean curvature, flow accumulation, flow line density, distance to troughs, and distance to summits) were extracted from U.S.
These elements can be described by geomorphic forms of hillslope, which are defined by their slope curvatures: profile curvature and tangential curvature (Chorley et al., 1985; Pennock et al., 1987).
The slope data and information (i.e., profile curvature, tangential curvature, and flow accumulation) generated from the 10-m (10.9 yd) dig ital elevation models are at a more appropriate scale for soil survey mapping.
The predictive model statement used the continuous quantitative variables elevation, slope, aspect, tangential curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, In upslope contributing area (Inca), and the categorical factor geology to predict Toowoomba dominant PPF.
These evidence layer maps were the Ipswich 1:250000 geology map, the slope map categorised into 16 classes, the DEM in 15 classes, a drainage area (ln ca) map in 13 classes, and the tangential curvature map in 5 classes.
The classification tree obtained using the continuous quantitative variables elevation, slope, aspect, tangential curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, natural log of the upslope contributing area (Inca), and the categorical factor geology to predict Toowoomba dominant PPF had 116 nodes.
of Residual terminal mean nodes deviance Factor (bt.ppfl) ~ plan 116 2.724 = curvature+profile curvature+tangential curvature+slope 56090/ (%) +aspect+In ca+elevation+factor 20590 (geology) Variables actually used in tree 55 2.846 = construction: factor (geology) 58770/ +elevation+slope(%) + In ca+aspect+profile curvature+ 20650 tangential curvature Variables actually used in tree 36 2.924 = construction: factor (geology) 60450/ +elevation+slope(%) + In ca+aspect+profile curvature+ 20670 tangential curvature Variables actually used in tree 14 3.103 = construction: factor (geology) +elevation+ 64220/ In ca+slope(%) 20690 Variables actually used in tree 10 3.194 = construction: factor (geology) +elevation+ 66090/ In ca 20700 Classification tree Misclassi- No.
Of the DEM-derived terrain attributes, only slope (%), Inca, aspect, profile curvature, and tangential curvature are used to build the tree when it is pruned to 55 or 36 terminal nodes.