Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Idioms, Wikipedia.
Related to tanker: Tanker truck, Tanker aircraft


(naval architecture)
A steel ship in which the hull is subdivided into tanks for carrying petroleum products or other liquid cargo in bulk. Also known as tankship.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a vessel for transporting liquid cargoes in bulk. Tanker cargoes include petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied gases, food products (vegetable oil, milk, starch syrup, whale oil, and wine), chemicals (acids and alcohol), molten sulfur, asphalt, and fresh water.

In the second half of the 19th century, petroleum and petroleum products were first shipped in bulk in hold boxes (inset tanks) or directly in the hull; earlier, petroleum had been shipped in barrels. The first bulk shipment was accomplished in Russia on the Caspian Sea in 1873 by the Artem’ev brothers, owners of the wooden sailing schooner Aleksandr. Wooden and metal tanker barges were later built to carry petroleum on the Caspian Sea and the Volga. The first Russian iron steam tanker, the Zoroastr, was built in 1878. Its eight inset cylindrical tanks had a capacity of 250 tons; the tanks were later removed and the petroleum was loaded directly into the holds. The Russian steam tanker Spasitel, with a capacity of 670 tons, served as a prototype for modern tankers. Built in 1882, four years earlier than the British steam tanker Glückauf, the Spasitel had a deadweight capacity of approximately 3,000 tons and was virtually of the same design as the Russian vessel.

By mid-1974, the tanker fleet constituted almost half of the volume of the world merchant fleet. At that time, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping had registered a total of 7,855 tankers with a gross tonnage of approximately 155 million register tons (counting ships with gross tonnages of at least 100 register tons). By the beginning of 1975, the total deadweight capacity of the 1,268 tankers under construction or ordered with deadweight capacities of at least 2,000 tons was 168 million tons, almost 82 percent by volume of all ships on order in the world.

The tanker is a single-deck, self-propelled vessel with an engine room, crew quarters and service areas in the stern and a longitudinal (sometimes transverse on the sides) system of framing the ship’s hull, usually without a double bottom in the cargo tanks. The cargo areas are divided into tanks by several transverse bulkheads and one to three longitudinal bulkheads, depending on the size of the tanker; several of the tanks are used only for taking on water ballast. Access to the tanks is through small deck openings with sealed covers. The tanker is loaded with one or several types of cargo by shore equipment and unloaded by ship pumps through pipes laid along the deck and in the tanks. The tanks are equipped with heat exchangers—coiled piping through which steam passes—which heat congealing cargoes, such as paraffin-base petroleum, mazut, and bitumen.

Tankers have equipment to prevent and fight fires, for example, devices to fill the tanks with inert gas and devices for extinguishing surface and regular fires with vapors, foam, and water spray. In order to improve seaworthiness, tankers traveling unloaded take on water in ballast and cargo tanks; the cargo tanks are equipped with apparatus for washing the tanks with hot water under pressure and for removing petroleum contaminants from the water. The inner surfaces of the tanks are protected with anti-corrosion coatings, and the tanks of chemical tankers are sometimes made of corrosion-resistant materials.

Petroleum tankers are among the largest transport ships. A typical large tanker built in 1975 has a deadweight capacity of approximately 550,000 tons, a length of 400 m, a width of 63 m, sides 35 m high, and a draft of 28.5 m. The main engines are two steam turbines rated at 26,800 kilowatts (32,400 hp) each. Small and medium tankers usually have diesel power plants, while steam-turbine units are most common on large tankers.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


i. An aircraft equipped for in-flight air-to-air refueling of other aircraft. See probe and drogue.
ii. To carry excess fuel to avoid unavailability or having to purchase it at a higher price.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
References in periodicals archive ?
He reviewed and inspected the facilities being provided in the terminal for parking of oil tankers and directed that the motor for supply of water should be made in order immediately.
The mayor said that all arrangements at the terminal were completed but still required results were not achieved regarding parking of oil tankers due to the reason that other organisations did not followed the directives of the court.
In addition, Teekay Tankers owns a ship-to-ship transfer business.
And the wrecked tanker oozing oil at the ocean bottom threatens the entire marine food chain, as oil particles pass from tiny microbes called zooplankton to the small fish that eat them, and so on; even tiny amounts of crude oil can damage fish eggs and embryos, according to a National Marine Fisheries Services study.
The Mayor Karachi said that an arrangement at this parking terminal was completed but still required results were not achieved regarding parking of oil tankers due to the reason that other organizations did not follow the directives of the court.
KARACHI -- Mayor Wasim Akhtar said that shifting of tankers in Zulfiqarabad Oil Tankers Parking Terminal would decrease traffic problems in Karachi.
Upon the closing of the merger, TIL will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Teekay Tankers.
KARACHI -- Mayor Karachi Wasim Akhtar said district administration implement the orders of the Court regarding shifting of oil tankers to Zulfiqarabad Parking Terminal as provided all facilities for parking of oil tankers at ZOTPT and now district administration is responsible for shifting of tankers at the Zulfiqarabad Parking Terminal.
M2 EQUITYBITES-May 12, 2015-Scorpio Tankers to acquire four LR2 product tankers for USD60m each; Takes delivery of three newbuilding vessels
Teekay Tankers currently owns a fleet of 27 double-hull vessels, including 11 Aframax tankers, 10 Suezmax tankers, three Long Range 2 (LR2) product tankers, three Medium-Range (MR) product tankers and has one time-chartered in Aframax tanker, which vessels an affiliate of Teekay Corporation (NYSE:TK) manages through a mix of short or medium-term fixed-rate time-charter contracts and spot tanker market trading.
The sale follows talks between Nordic Tankers its banks prompted by the companya[euro](tm)s high debt and continuing low freight rates, the vendor said in a press release.
Ploutos Oil Tanker Wilhelmsen OP-I 20/03/19 06: 18 -