31, comprising 16 exons that are alternatively spliced on exons 2, 3, and 10 to generate 6 tau protein
isoforms ranging from 352 to 441 amino acids in the adult human brain [Figure 1].
Research into drugs targeting Tau protein
is also facing difficulties.
Tauopathies are neurodegenerative conditions characterized by a pathologic accumulation of insoluble intraneuronal aggregates of tau proteins
(Figure 1) leading to various frontotemporal dementias.
The tau fragment, which is produced when caspase-2 cuts the full-length tau protein
at a specific location, was also found at higher levels in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients compared to healthy individuals of the same age.
Hippocampal volume was again assessed by MRI; positron emission tomography scans were used to assess amyloid deposition, but also regional brain tau protein
levels and other pathologies, and there was serial cognitive testing.
The disease is characterized by degradation of brain tissue and the accumulation of tau protein
, causing symptoms such as memory loss, aggression, confusion and deep depression that generally appear years after initial brain trauma.
In addition, tau entanglement is also associated with AD and consists of insoluble hyperphosphorylated tau protein
in the intracellular space.
abnormalities are also found in other fatal neurodegenerative diseases causing dementia or movement disorders.
Neurodegeneration and proper and pathological protein folding are covered in general terms, followed by focus on the tau protein
and its propensity to misfold.
Cultured neurons from human patients with Alzheimer's exhibit elevated levels of the toxic form of amyloid found in plaques and the abnormal version of the tau protein
that makes up tangles, but not actual plaques and tangles.
Inhibition of the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein
is an effective therapy for AD.
The patient-derived cells also had high amounts of the tau protein
, or more accurately tau that has been distorted so that the proteins tangle together.