teacher training


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teacher training,

professional preparation of teachers, usually through formal course work and practice teaching. Although the concept of teaching as a profession is fairly new, most teachers in industrialized nations today are college or university educated. The amount of preparatory training, however, varies greatly worldwide.

Early History

Specific training for teachers was originated in France (1685) by St. John Baptist de la SalleJohn Baptist de la Salle, Saint
, 1651–1719, French educator, founder of the Christian Brothers, b. Reims. He became a priest and canon of the cathedral. He spent his life teaching children of the poor.
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. Teacher training spread rapidly in Europe as a result of the work of August Hermann FranckeFrancke, August Hermann
, 1663–1727, German Protestant minister and philanthropist. In 1686, encouraged by Philipp Jakob Spener, he helped found the Collegium philobiblicum for the systematic study of the Scriptures. He became a leading exponent of Pietism c.
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 and Johann PestalozziPestalozzi, Johann Heinrich
, 1746–1827, Swiss educational reformer, b. Zürich. His theories laid the foundation of modern elementary education. He studied theology at the Univ.
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 and through the influence of the monitorial systemmonitorial system,
method of elementary education devised by British educators Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell during the 19th cent. to furnish schooling to the underprivileged even under conditions of severely limited facilities.
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. Germany established the first curriculum for teacher training in the 18th cent. From Europe the monitorial training method spread to the United States (c.1810).

History in the United States

In the colonial period in America, the only requirements for teaching in the lower schools were a modicum of learning and a willingness to work in what was then an ill-paid, low-prestige occupation. By the 1820s and 30s, however, teacher training became common in the academies, the equivalent of today's secondary schools. Many women, excluded from men's preparatory schools, could obtain an education only in such academies. The nation's first private normal school, a two-year post–high school training institute for elementary-school teachers, was opened by Samuel R. Hall (1823); the first state-supported normal school was created by Massachusetts (1839).

With the assistance of Henry BarnardBarnard, Henry,
1811–1900, American educator, b. Hartford, Conn., grad. Yale, 1830. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1835. As a member (1837–39) of the Connecticut legislature, he originated and secured the passage in 1838 of an act to provide for the
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 and Horace MannMann, Horace
, 1796–1859, American educator, b. Franklin, Mass. He received a sparse preliminary schooling, but succeeded in entering Brown in the sophomore class and graduated with honors in 1819.
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, the number of normal schools in the United States increased rapidly during the latter half of the 19th cent. Since their sole purpose was professional instruction of elementary-school teachers, an especially strong emphasis was placed on the psychology of child development. Preparation for secondary-school teaching, which demanded a larger academic component, was still left to liberal arts colleges. Nevertheless, by the turn of the century many normal schools had expanded into four-year degree-granting teachers colleges, and by the 1920s and 30s these teachers colleges, generally supported by the public, were training substantial numbers of the nation's public-school teachers.

Training for secondary-school teachers remained primarily a function of liberal-arts colleges until after World War II, when growing numbers of students, a strong rise in the average age of leaving school, and the growing need for technical skills in the nation's workforce led to a demand for secondary education that traditional colleges could not meet. Since 1945, consequently, most teachers colleges have expanded their educational missions and become liberal-arts colleges offering a broad general education in addition to specialized courses in pedagogy.

In the United States, the first graduate program in education was established at New York Univ. (1887). In the following year the teacher-training school that is presently known as Teachers College, Columbia Univ., was founded. Since the establishment of those two institutions, graduate study in education has expanded rapidly.

Current Practice

Certification requirements for teaching have advanced with educational opportunity, although they vary widely from country to country. Some, like the United States, allow each state to establish its own requirements; others, like England, set national standards. The trend in certification has been toward requiring more complete training, with practice teaching and extensive graduate work for specialized positions. In many countries extension or summer graduate work is required of teachers or is made a prerequisite for advancement. A number of graduate professional degrees are now offered, including the Master of Arts in Teaching and the Doctor of Education. While the professional requirements for teaching in the United States have in the past stressed method and psychology, increasing emphasis is now being placed on subject-matter specialization; European countries have generally stressed scholarship.

Improvements in teacher training led to demands for professional recognition and benefits. These resulted in the formation of several international organizations as well as local and national teachers' unions. The success of teacher training for elementary and secondary education has led some college administrations to consider requiring such training for college teaching also.

See educationeducation,
any process, either formal or informal, that shapes the potential of a maturing organism. Informal education results from the constant effect of environment, and its strength in shaping values and habits can not be overestimated.
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; progressive educationprogressive education,
movement in American education. Confined to a period between the late 19th and mid-20th cent., the term "progressive education" is generally used to refer only to those educational programs that grew out of the American reform effort known as the
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; vocational educationvocational education,
training designed to advance individuals' general proficiency, especially in relation to their present or future occupations. The term does not normally include training for the professions.
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; programmed instructionprogrammed instruction,
method of presenting new subject matter to students in a graded sequence of controlled steps. Students work through the programmed material by themselves at their own speed and after each step test their comprehension by answering an examination question
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.

Bibliography

See M. L. Borrowman, The Liberal and Technical in Teacher Education (1956, repr. 1977); C. P. Magrath and R. L. Egbert, Strengthening Teacher Education (1987); R. J. Arends, Learning to Teach (1988); G. J. Clifford and J. W. Guthrie, Ed School (1990).

References in periodicals archive ?
COMPETENT TEACHERSIn order to produce effective and competent teachers, teacher training programmes need to be harmonised across all the institutions.
Yoga teacher training program specially designed for intermediate and advanced level yoga students.
We are excited to offer yoga teacher training at Mind to Body - we look forward to encouraging and guiding our students to help them find their own unique voice and develop their internal wisdom and mind-body connection," says Pritpal Singh, Owner of Mind to Body Yoga & Fitness Studio.
With an excellent reputation from 50 years of providing teacher training, a recent Ofsted inspection graded teaching at Newman's School of Education as "good" across all areas, reaffirming the university's status as one of the UK's leading institutions for excellence in teacher training.
Anyone wishing to teach must complete initial teacher training - ITT.
One of the most frequent responses was that teacher training is hard work, but ultimately a very rewarding experience.
Prof Furlong, who was asked by ministers to consider how teacher training provision is currently organised, proposed raising standards for new teachers, strengthening research capacity and establishing a revised accreditation process for ITT providers.
The minister is now to appoint new senior expert adviser on Initial Teacher Training to lead reforms to raise standards.
The study was designed to analyze the role of RITEs by considering their in-service teacher training programs for five years, i.
Over his career in education, Fleming (School Leadership and Workforce Development, North Yorkshire County Council, UK) has taught in both secondary schools and higher education, and also served as head of teacher training at York St.
The University of Birmingham said that some institutions which currently offered teacher training were considering closing their education departments.
The Newton Teacher Training Institute is an "alternative" teacher-training program in Massachusetts, similar to those described in Katherine Newman's article ("Teacher Training, Tailor-Made," features, Spring 2009).

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