Skinner, and their teaching machines
and how companies were formed to address perceived deficits in the educational system in the 1960s; what happened when computer scientists took the reins of teaching machines
from psychologists and created machines like PLATO, the Logo programming language, CD-ROMs, and tutoring systems; the role of the internet, including learning management systems, immersive experiences like simulations and Second Life, the Khan Academy, e-learning, and MOOCs (massive open online courses); and issues in designing future teaching machines
Pask was involved with research on teaching machines
At the Public School, robotic teaching machines
program children on Mars to be model citizens.
. Scientific American, 205, 90-107
These teaching machines
can instruct students in subjects such as dance, music, vocabulary, and foreign languages.
1999 Neal Lerner, "Drill Pads, Teaching Machines
, Programmed Texts: Origins of Instructional Technology In Writing Centers"
They are now required to function as automatons as they present scripted lessons, follow pacing schedules, narrow the curriculum to those few areas tested on the state assessments, and, in general, limit their professional lives to activities that could be performed by teaching machines
or computer programs.
It would mean teachers would have to be able to think rather than just being teaching machines
Skinner promoted the use of teaching machines
and programmed textbooks.
The changes reported in the classrooms suggest that the technology may have implications that go beyond being mere teaching machines
. Chloe spoke of her students networking, "I see kids networking with other kids in totally different ways." Students often used computers to communicate with friends as well as meet new friends in chats.
909), but it does not follow that teaching machines
, especially computers, cannot be used to provide instruction in higher order conceptual tasks.
Perhaps to keep schools viable, teachers will have to reevaluate their approach and, instead of spending so much time directly teaching basic information, they will have to relegate it to the new "teaching machines
" that allow students to playfully practice skills to reach mastery, create and control simulated worlds, and increase their levels of challenge according to their individual needs.