2017 ) Stage I Cholesteatoma localized in the attic Stage II Cholesteatoma involving two or more sites Stage III Cholesteatoma with extracranial complications or pathologic conditions including Facial palsy, Labyrinthine fistula: with conditions at risk of membranous labyrinth, Labyrinthitis, Postauricular abscess or fistula, Zygomatic abscess, Neck abscess, Canal wall destruction: more than half the length of the bony ear canal, Destruction of the tegmen
: with a defect that requires surgica repair, and Adhesive otitis: total adhesion of the pars tensa.
Aedeagus cans present three states: with tegmen
, with weak sutures in tegmen
or with basal part totally separate of parammeres.
of Patients Percentage Attic 5 10% Atticoantral 10 20% Sinus tympani 10 20% Extensive 25 50% Table 3 Ossicle Involved Percentage Malleus 5 10% Incus 30 60% Stapes 20 40% Table 4 Features HRCT Intraoperative False False Finding Finding Positive Negative Soft Tissue 50 50 0 0 Tegmen
10 9 1 0 erosion Sigmoid 15 20 0 5 sinus erosion Facial canal 10 14 0 4 erosion LSCC 3 2 1 0 dehiscence Features Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV Soft Tissue 100 100 100 100 Tegmen
100 97.6 90 100 erosion Sigmoid 80 100 100 87.5 sinus erosion Facial canal 77.8 100 100 90.9 erosion LSCC 100 97.9 66.7 100 dehiscence
Furthermore, the presented case had features of tegmen
tympani erosion, which is suggestive of a central nervous system risk lesion.
Abbreviations: ab = auditory bulla; ag = angular process; c = coronoid process; cj = capsular projection; cp = condyloid process; f = foramen magnum; f = frontal; fc = frontal crest; fs = frontal sinuse; gc = glenoid cavity; gp = gnathic process; i = incisor; if = infraorbital foramen; ju = jugal; ly = lacrimal; m = malleus; M = molar; ms = maseteric scar; ms = mesopterygoid fossa; n = nasal; o = occipital; pm = premaxillary; pp = parapterygoid plate; pt = pterygoids; sq = squamosal; sr = squamosal ridge; tt = tegmen
tympani; z = zygomatic plate.
Radiological signs indicating cholesteatoma in the attic included erosion or destruction of scutum or spur (the lateral wall of the attic), widening of the aditus ad antrum (loss of figure of "8" appearance) , antral wall erosions and widening , ossicular erosions and destruction , medial attic wall erosion which may lead to facial nerve canal involvement, which may cause paresis or paralysis , erosion of the lateral semicircular canal which may result into fistula formation (Figure 1), dehiscence of tegmen
tympani , dehiscence of sigmoid sinus plate, erosion of the external auditory canal (EAC), and automastoidectomy.
 Other areas of erosion include the tegmen
tympani, the bony plate covering the sigmoid sinus, the squama of the temporal bone and rarely the vestibular labyrinth.
[sup] Briefly, under general anesthesia, cortical mastoidectomy was performed with identification of the horizontal semicircular canal, tegmen
, sigmoid sinus, and mastoid antrum after making a postauricular incision.
Ardindan 1739 yilinda Prusya krali Tegmen
Sattler adli bir elcisini Kirim Hani'na verilmek uzere, bir mektupla at satin alma ve ordu icin insan temini goreviyle Bogdan'a gonderdi.
The scutum, ossicles, and tegmen
tympani are common sites for erosion.
The specimens compared with previous description showed a marked difference of 13mm in body length, 18 mm of tegmen
length in male while in case of female 7mm in body length, 13mm of tegmen
length and 7mm of hind femur length was recorded.