Shizgal, "Fos-like immunoreactivity in forebrain regions following self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus and the ventral tegmental
area," Behavioural Brain Research, vol.
Ethanol self-administration is regulated by CB1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental
area in alcohol-preferring AA rats.
Los estudios sobre las adicciones han demostrado que las celulas dopaminergicas del area ventral "tegmental
" estimulan el nucleo accumbens donde hay receptores de tipo D1 (excitacion) y D2 (inhibitorio).
(2) The central tegmental
tract has several connections to the nucleus ambiguous, which gives rise to efferent motor fibers of the vagus nerve that innervates the muscles that control palatal movement.
Adaptive responses of gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons in the ventral tegmental
area to chronic ethanol.
7 (bipolar, 24 pulses, 60 Hz, 120 [mu]A) is also reinforcing to the rat because it will self-administer such stimulation trains in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental
area in the intracranial self-stimulation (ICS) paradigm.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease, where the reduction of dopamine (DA) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)-striatal, ventral tegmental
area (VTA)-cortex, and VTA-limbic pathways leads to the motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of the disease. Being a crucial part of the cortex-limbic system-striatal pathway, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) connects with many nuclear groups in the brain.
The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral tegmental
area (VTA) in the nonhypothalamic system also play critical roles in the regulation of food intake and reward-related eating .
Neurons containing dopamine (DA) in the ventral tegmental
area (VTA), in particular the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and their target areas in the limbic forebrain play the most important role in the brain reward circuit.
According to research published in the journal Cerebral Cortex, gratitude stimulates the hypothalamus (a key part of the brain that regulates stress) and the ventral tegmental
area (part of our "reward circuitry" that produces the sensation of pleasure).
Tye and her team suspected that a neural pathway from the lateral hypothalamus to the ventral tegmental
area might play an important role in compulsive overeating because these brain regions have been implicated in reward-related behaviors such as eating, sexual activity, and drug addiction.
In fact, PD is characterized early by a deficit of dopamine brain pathways due to the primary loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental
area; the nigrostriatal dopamine circuitry would be precociously affected by the disease, which subsequently also injures the mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways [14, 15].