(a) Loading-unloading curves and (b) the corresponding stress and dissipated energy of various hydrogels performed at 600% tensile strain
, (c) Loading-unloading curves and (d) the corresponding stress and dissipated energy of PVA/Caalginate/PAM TN hydrogels with different PVA concentration performed at 600% strain.
The addition of MAPP decreased the nominal tensile strain
at break of the WPCs under all conditions.
The increment of volumetric plasticity tensile strain
is defined as 
Sample Tensile strength (MPa) Tensile strain
at break (%) [F.sub.0] 44.3 [+ or -] 0.5 3.5 [+ or -] 0.1 [F.sub.0.03] 46.5 [+ or -] 1.0 4.3 [+ or -] 0.2 [F.sub.0.08] 49.1 [+ or -] 1.5 4.7 [+ or -] 0.1 Sample Thickness ([micro]m) [F.sub.0] 77.4 [+ or -] 3.0 [F.sub.0.03] 84.6 [+ or -] 2.0 [F.sub.0.08] 88.1 [+ or -] 3.0 Table 4: The OP values of composite films ([F.sub.0], [F.sub.0.03], and [F.sub.0.08]).
(b) Potential energy distribution (model F; e is tensile strain
in z direction).
In the 8th of February, the TBM is 12 m to the number 1 borehole, the tensile strain
increased to 629.85 [mu][epsilon] at a depth of 35.8 m in the number 1 borehole, and the compress strain ascended to -649.2 [mu][epsilon] in 43.3 m.
However, interestingly, the resistance of the asymmetric stretchable electrodes decreased with the tensile strain
below 100% (Figure 5).
The experimental results are summarized in Table 5 and include (1) tensile strength, (2) tensile strain
, (3) average crack width at 0.2% tensile strain
, and (4) average bond strength (u) determined by summing the forces parallel to the reinforcement axis, assuming that the bond stress levels are distributed uniformly over this length , as follows:
The ultimate limit state (ULS) crack width of the RC specimen with overlays was lower in comparison with the RC specimen, which was caused by the PVA-ECC high performance and tensile strain
hardening behavior before the crack localization.
- the presence of horizontal tensile strain
with values exceeding +2.
Measurement of the tensile strain
was done following the same procedure in DIC by calculating the longitudinal strain in the strain gauge.
The axis of rotation is located at the top side of the flange in order to generate tensile strain
in the flange area.