Turvey, "Single-bolt tension joint tests on pultruded GRP plate--effects of tension direction relative to pultrusion direction," Composite Structures, vol.
Turvey, "Effects of joint geometry and bolt torque on the structural performance of single bolt tension joints in pultruded GRP sheet material," Composite Structures, vol.
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In the general case, these assembly joints can be slip-resistant, shear or tension joints
. Even though all of the above-named types of joints can be used to connect truss elements, this article focuses only on flange-plate joints in axial tension as their initial displacement is the least if compared to shear joints.
The main sign of mechanical failures of the stone structure of Charles Bridge caused by cyclical temperature effects are mainly hair cracks visually observable on the face of vault arches developing to prominent longitudinal tension joints and shear cracks passing through both the joints of the stone masonry and the stone blocks.
Under the presumed coupling of the breast walls by means of a reinforcement concrete slab tie (design stage--repair 1966-1975), total deformations along the cross-section are reduced at the expense of a substantial increase in transversal tensile stresses +[[sigma].sub.y], which degrade the stone masonry by means of tension joints (Fig 14 a).
In the case of stone masonry, this scope is relatively narrow, being characterised by growing permanent deformations accompanied by the rise and development of tension joints and shear cracks, or by crushing the filler of bed joints and stone blocks, and by a gradual disintegration of masonry.
Metal-plate connected tension joints
under different loading conditions.
Mechanical fastening generally falls into three categories--shear joints, tension joints
, and lug and clevis joints.