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hybrid

(hī`brĭd), term applied by plant and animal breeders to the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species, and by geneticists to the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic (see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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). The mulemule,
hybrid offspring of a male donkey (see ass) and a female horse, bred as a work animal. The name is also sometimes applied to the hinny, the offspring of a male horse and female donkey; hinnies are considered inferior to mules.
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, the hybrid steer, and hybrid corn are examples of hybrids produced by breeders, but some animal species may cross-breed in the wild, as the gray wolf and coyote sometimes do. Hybridization between cultivars or varieties is often used in agriculture to obtain greater vigor or growth (heterosis). Hybrid vigor is achieved by crossing two inbred strains (see breedingbreeding,
in agriculture and animal husbandry, propagation of plants and animals by sexual reproduction; usually based on selection of parents with desirable traits to produce improved progeny.
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). The first generation shows greatly increased vigor and a better yield primarily because many genes for recessive, often deleterious, traits from one parent are masked by corresponding dominant genes in the other parent.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hybrid

 

sexual offspring produced by the crossing of two genotypically different organisms. The organisms crossed are called parental forms and are designated by the letter P. The maternal form or female individual is designated by the symbol ♀ , the paternal form or male individual by the symbol ♂, crossing by the symbol ×, hybrid offspring of the first generation by F with the subscript 1 (F1), second generation by F2, and so forth. For example, the F4 hybrid of ♀(beardless wheat) Bezostaia 1 × ♂ Belotserkovskaia 198 is the fourth generation of the hybrid in which the maternal form was Bezostaia 1 and the paternal form Belotserkovskaia 198. Hybrids may be spontaneous or artificial, intraspecific or remote. The following hybrids are distinguished in breeding corn: the intervarietal, when two varieties are crossed; the variety-line hybrid, when a variety is crossed with an inbred line (for example, to produce the hybrid Bukovinskii 3: ♀ Gloriia lanetskogo × ♂ VIR 44); the single cross hybrid, from the crossing of two strains (for example, the hybrid Slava is produced by crossing the inbred lines ♀ VIR 44 ×♂ VIR 38); and the double cross hybrid from crossing two simple hybrids (for example, the hybrid VIR 42 is produced by crossing ♀ Slava × ♂ Svetoch).

D. M. SHCHERBINA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

hybrid

[′hī·brəd]
(genetics)
The offspring of parents of different species or varieties.
(petrology)
Pertaining to a rock formed by the assimilation of two magmas.
(science and technology)
Having two or more different characteristics or types of structure.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hybrid

Said of a plant produced by crossing two distant varieties or species.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hybrid

1. an animal or plant resulting from a cross between genetically unlike individuals. Hybrids between different species are usually sterile
2. a vehicle that is powered by an internal-combustion engine and another source of power such as a battery
3. (of a vehicle) powered by more than one source
4. Physics (of an electromagnetic wave) having components of both electric and magnetic field vectors in the direction of propagation
5. Electronics
a. (of a circuit) consisting of transistors and valves
b. (of an integrated circuit) consisting of one or more fully integrated circuits and other components, attached to a ceramic substrate
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Hybrid

A concurrent object-oriented language.

["Active Objects in Hybrid", O.M. Nierstrasz, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):243-253 (OOPSLA '87) (Dec 1987)].
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)

hybrid

(1) Products that combine two or more different technologies. For data and software hybrids, see hybrid file, hybrid app and hybrid mobile app. For hardware hybrids, see hybrid laptop, hybrid computer, hybrid cloud, eSATA USB Hybrid Port, hybrid smartwatch, hybrid drive, hybrid circuit and hybrid microcircuit.

(2) Also known as a "termination" or "term set," a hybrid is a device that adapts a two-wire telephone line from a home or business into a four-wire trunk at the telco central office. Hybrids also exist within the telephone handset, converting the two-wire line into four wires: two for the speaker; two for the microphone. See echo cancellation.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
Aggregate the linguistic values [s.sub.ki] (k = 1, ***, [l.sub.i]) in each hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set [H.sup.P.sub.i] (i [member of] 1, ***, n) with the jth largest [u.sub.i] and obtain the result [[DELTA].sup.-1] ([H.sup.P.sub.j])(j = 1,2,3,4) as follows [[DELTA].sup.-1] ([H.sup.P.sub.1]) = 1 x [[DELTA].sup.-1] ([S.sub.5]) = 1 x 5 = 1,
Property 3 If there is only one linguistic term [mathematical expression not reproducible] in each hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set such that [mathematical expression not reproducible], i.e., [mathematical expression not reproducible], then the IHFLPOWA operator defined by (11) is reduced to the induced linguistic OWA.
According to Eq.(11), the measures of the IHFLPOWA operator are decided by the weighting vector and probability distribution of each hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set.
Denote [s.sub.[alpha]] = min{[H.sup.P.sub.i-]|i = 1,***, n} and [s.sub.[beta]] = max{[H.sup.P.sub.i+]|i = 1,***, n} For convenience, we rewrite each hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set with probabilistic information as [H.sup.P.sub.i] = {([s.sub.[alpha]],[p.sub.[alpha]i]),***, ([s.sub.[beta]],[p.sub.[beta]i])} such that [mathematical expression not reproducible] where [mathematical expression not reproducible] means [s.sub.l] [??] [H.sup.P.sub.i] and [s.sub.l] [member of] S' ={[s.sub.[alpha]],[s.sub.[alpha]+1],***,[s.sub.[beta]]}, such as in Example 1,
Formally, in a movie fuzzy ontology [O.sub.F] = {I, C, R, F, A}, assume individuals (movies) are I = {[A.sub.1], [A.sub.2], ***, [A.sub.n]}, concepts associated with movies are C = {[C.sub.1], [C.sub.2], ***, [C.sub.m]} and users are E = {[e.sub.1] [e.sub.2], ***, [e.sub.p]}, users provide their opinion about movies by using hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set with probabilistic information on a linguistic term set, then creating the movie fuzzy ontology based on the IHFLPOWA operator can be described as following steps:
Let a linguistic term set be S = {[s.sub.0], [s.sub.1] ***, [s.sub.g]}.
Liao, "Multi-criteria decision making method of hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set based on improved MACBETH method," Kongzhi yu Juece/Control and Decision, vol.
Xu, "A survey of decision making theory and methodologies of hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set," Xitong Gongcheng Lilun yu Shijian/System Engineering Theory and Practice, vol.
They are, respectively, hesitant fuzzy linguistic ordered weighted distance operators for group decision-making [46], hesitant fuzzy linguistic multigranularity decision-making model based on distance measures [47], cosine distance and similarity measures for HFLTSs [48], hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy linguistic distance measures [49], pairwise comparison and distance measure of hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets [50], and the decision-making method based on the Hausdorff distance of hesitant fuzzy linguistic numbers [51], which quickly became a hot paper of high value.
Herrera, "Hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets for decision making," IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol.
Herrera, "A group decision making model dealing with comparative linguistic expressions based on hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets," Information Sciences, vol.
Rashid, "TOPSIS for hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets," International Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol.