[V.sub.R1C1] = [V.sub.R2C2] = 0) the OCV and

terminal voltage are similar ([V.sub.t] = OCV).

DC transfer characteristic of X

terminal voltage (Vx) against input voltage at terminal Y (Vy) (shown in Fig.

However, selecting an inductor with suitable inductance is no simple process, where the inductance value should be adequate to minimize the circulating current as well as to reduce an extra voltage drop on the inductors that affects the

terminal voltage. This difficulty can be circumvented by using a multiwinding coupled inductor.

And [I.sub.S] is the current pass through the capacitance [C.sub.S], [I.sub.L] is the load current (positive for discharging state and negative for charging state), and [U.sub.L] is the

terminal voltage. Among them, the open-circuit voltage [U.sub.OC] describes the voltage characteristics of the battery, and the capacitance [C.sub.S] describes the capacity characteristics of the battery.

The first type consumed the redundant energy of parallel resistance to maintain the

terminal voltage of the cells.

The outputs of the lithium ion battery model are the battery

terminal voltage; the battery cell temperature; the battery SOC; and also the increased SEI thickness and the decreased battery capacity, both of which indicated SOH of the battery.

In Eq.1, [I.sub.ph] represents the illumination dependent current source, [I.sub.s] diode reverse saturation current, q electron charge, [I.sub.pv]

terminal voltage, K Boltzmann constant, T cell temperature in Kelvin, N ideality factor, [R.sub.sh] parallel resistance and [R.sub.s] series resistance.

The back EMF waveform from the zero crossing point is measured indirectly from the three

terminal voltage of the motor.

The parameters are as follows: U represents the effective back-electromotive force (EMF); i denotes the circuit current; [L.sub.w] and [R.sub.w] are the equivalent inductance and resistance of the three-phase windings, respectively; [L.sub.bc] denotes the inductance of the boost converter's inductor; [U.sub.c] represents the

terminal voltage of the ultracapacitor.

[u.sub.M] is output

terminal voltage of the linear motor which has been rectified by a rectifier.

The output of the PI controller ([I.sub.smq(n)]) required to maintain constant AC

terminal voltage at the nth sampling instant is computed as

If the

terminal voltage does not drop to zero, then there is also the component induced by the positive sequence stator flux which rotates at