The archaeological sites and cities in Syria were exposed to two types of terrorist acts: the trade and smuggling of historical artifacts by terrorists in order to secure additional sources of funding, and the destruction of monuments that terrorists could not sell or smuggle out of Syria, such as the destruction facade of the Roman amphitheater and the Tetrapylon
in Palmyra city.
(112) Kareem Shaheen, 'Isis Destroys Tetrapylon
Monument in Palmyra' Guardian 20 Jan.
We know Isca Augusta contained a fortress area (barracks); an "Arch de Triumph" (tetrapylon
); amphitheatre; monumental suburb; custom-built port; a legion commander's residence; and, most likely, other infrastructure - yet to be uncovered.
Isis also destroyed part of a massive Roman theatre and an ancient "tetrapylon
", a towering group of columns, before being forced out in March.
Before ISIS was pushed out of the city in March, the militant group destroyed some of Palmyra's historical ruins. It later destroyed more priceless archaeological heritage after taking back the city in December. ISIS has said it destroyed the ancient site, including Palmyra's Roman-era theater and the adjoining Tetrapylon
- a set of four monuments with four columns leading to the theater, because they were monuments to idolatry.
The square in front of the central columned entrance hall with the illuminated tetrapylon
is visible from some distance.
Its ancient monuments, built in the Roman style, include the Great Colonnade, the huge temple of Baal, the Monumental Arch and the agora, theater, and tetrapylon
When Stoneman writes: "If Gibbon had visited Palmyra, might he have found, as he sat among the golden anemones and the thorn bushes, musing under the columns of the tetrapylon
, while the barefoot mullahs were chanting the call to prayer beside the Temple of Bel, that here was a theme for his pen as great, if inescapably elusive, as the Decline and Fall of Rome?" (p.
When ISIS occupied the area again in December, it (http://cms.ibtimes.com/what-happening-palmyra-syria-isis-destroys-roman-amphitheater-tetrapylon-ancient-city-2478309) demolished the iconic Tetrapylon
monument and the facade of the Roman Theater.