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(thăl`əməs), mass of nerve cells centrally located in the brainbrain,
the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness, and thought. Anatomy and Function
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 just below the cerebrum and resembling a large egg in size and shape. The thalamus is a routing station for all incoming sensory impulses except those of smell, transmitting them to higher (cerebral) nerve centers. In addition, it connects various brain centers with others. Thus the thalamus is a major integrative complex, enabling sensory stimuli to evoke appropriate physical reactions as well as to affect emotions. With the hypothalamushypothalamus
, an important supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function.
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, the thalamus establishes levels of sleep and wakefulness. It is also vital to the neural feedback system controlling brain wave rhythms.



a conglomerate of the nuclei of gray matter (nerve cells) in the brain, located between the mesencephalon and the cerebral cortex; it is the main part of the diencephalon.

The thalamus developed for the first time in bony fish. In ontogenesis it develops from the prosencephalon sac. The thalamus is a nucleus in which afferent nerve impulses coming from all the sense organs (except the olfactory organs) gather. Each type of sensory pathway has its own specific nuclei (lateral group) in which the impulses are transmitted from one nerve cell to another and are transferred to the appropriate zone of the cerebral cortex. Associative nonspecific nuclei (medial group) receive stimuli from specific nuclei of the thalamus and from nonspecific structures of the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and medulla oblongata and transmit them to various subcortical and cortical neurons. The thalamus is involved in primary analysis and synthesis of all stimuli entering the brain from the neuroreceptors. In lower vertebrate animals the thalamus ensures performance of all necessary reflexes; in mammals and man the higher center of integration is the cerebral cortex. Under the thalamus lies the hypothalamus.



Either one of two masses of gray matter located on the sides of the third ventricle and forming part of the lateral wall of that cavity.

thalamus, thalamium

In early Greek architecture, an inner room or chamber, esp. the women’s apartment.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cheynes-Stokes respirations (cyclic, waxing-waning breathing pattern with apnoea episodes) can indicate global cerebral damage or bilateral thalamic damage.
RZ (a fictitious name), a cognitively intact 57-yearold female with PD 18 months post-DBS implant surgery of the sub thalamic nucleus, took part.
Limbic system: A set of brain structures, including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum, limbic cortex and fornix, that seemingly support a variety of functions, including emotion, behavior, motivation, long term memory, and olfaction.
Asiskal noted that on functional MRI, dysthymic patients show significantly more right amygdala, right thalamic, right fusiform gyrus, and left cerebellar activity, compared with controls.
But no evidence of thalamic neurodegeneration has been reported in HD mouse models.
Specific drugs used to treat epilepsy are absence seizure kind of like channels as T-type calcium in thalamic neurons are blocked.
Korzybski's extensional devices are simple linguistic techniques that revise language to improve its structure and function, as well as heighten thalamic stimulation.
However, there is evidence that electromagnetic forces increase the release of endogenous opioids via the brain's limbic system and a direct effect on thalamic function by changing brain wave activity.
T2 hypointensity has also been reported in the thalamic and dentate nuclei.
M Filippi (Milan, Italy) suggested that global and thalamic grey matter damage predicts the evolution of primary progressive MS at 5 years.