thalamus


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thalamus

(thăl`əməs), mass of nerve cells centrally located in the brainbrain,
the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness, and thought. Anatomy and Function
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 just below the cerebrum and resembling a large egg in size and shape. The thalamus is a routing station for all incoming sensory impulses except those of smell, transmitting them to higher (cerebral) nerve centers. In addition, it connects various brain centers with others. Thus the thalamus is a major integrative complex, enabling sensory stimuli to evoke appropriate physical reactions as well as to affect emotions. With the hypothalamushypothalamus
, an important supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function.
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, the thalamus establishes levels of sleep and wakefulness. It is also vital to the neural feedback system controlling brain wave rhythms.

Thalamus

 

a conglomerate of the nuclei of gray matter (nerve cells) in the brain, located between the mesencephalon and the cerebral cortex; it is the main part of the diencephalon.

The thalamus developed for the first time in bony fish. In ontogenesis it develops from the prosencephalon sac. The thalamus is a nucleus in which afferent nerve impulses coming from all the sense organs (except the olfactory organs) gather. Each type of sensory pathway has its own specific nuclei (lateral group) in which the impulses are transmitted from one nerve cell to another and are transferred to the appropriate zone of the cerebral cortex. Associative nonspecific nuclei (medial group) receive stimuli from specific nuclei of the thalamus and from nonspecific structures of the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and medulla oblongata and transmit them to various subcortical and cortical neurons. The thalamus is involved in primary analysis and synthesis of all stimuli entering the brain from the neuroreceptors. In lower vertebrate animals the thalamus ensures performance of all necessary reflexes; in mammals and man the higher center of integration is the cerebral cortex. Under the thalamus lies the hypothalamus.

IU. A. FADEEV

thalamus

[′thal·ə·məs]
(anatomy)
Either one of two masses of gray matter located on the sides of the third ventricle and forming part of the lateral wall of that cavity.

thalamus, thalamium

In early Greek architecture, an inner room or chamber, esp. the women’s apartment.
References in periodicals archive ?
Since we found out that only a few months of reading training can modify the thalamus fundamentally, we have to scrutinise this hypothesis,' Skeide said.
2012) functional magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry have shown that the thalamus is always involved in the progression of HDT.
Neural activities were simultaneously recorded from CA1 of hippocampus and MDT of thalamus during the seizures from 7 fully kindled mice.
As for radial projections, we simply consider the thalamus and the neocortex; tangential dimensions, on the other hand, were framed based on studies of cortical cells (Yates, 2013; Gray & Singer, 1989).
MRI BRAIN showed Restricted diffusion involving bilateral thalamus and midbrain-Artery of percheron infarct and chronic lacunar infarcts.
While anomia is generally associated with left dorsomedial thalamus lesions, lesions of the ventrolateral and ventral anterior regions lead to paraphasic disorders.
We used micro-PET to assess changes in cerebral glucose metabolism and found that both the right thalamus and the right striatum were significantly deactivated after feeding rats a HFD for nine weeks.
A profoundly damaged thalamus turned out to be at the center of one of the first right-to-die battles in the United States.
The components of the DBS system include a neurostimulator that connects to two leads that are implanted in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus.
The cerebral blood-flow was bilaterally increased in the orbitofrontal and subcallosial cingulate cortices, the right thalamus, and the left inferior parietal cortex, and was decreased bilaterally in the cingulate cortex.
Those areas were in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus and amygdala, and the thalamus.
While the differences were not significant, the right thalamus was larger in the group with shorter disease duration (7.