This research is expected to solve the problem of thermal stress cracking
of copper wires less than 2 micrometers in Wafer Level Packaging technology, and improve the toughness of thin wire width package copper wires after heating to reduce the key defects of fracturing.
Murphy, "Thermal stress cracking
and the enhancement of heat extraction from fractured geothermal reservoirs," in Proceedings of the Geothermal Resources Council Meeting, Hilo, Hawaii, USA, 1978.
Heard, "Thermal stress cracking
in granite," Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.
At AEP's Tanner's Creek 995 MW station, located on the Ohio River near Lawrenceburg, Indiana, thermal stress cracking
and wall loss indicated impending failures of 60 percent of the feedwater outlet tubes in the heat exchanger on the plant's 500 MW super critical Unit 4.
This technique is often used to produce nonconductive films, since reactive DC sputtering of metals allows higher deposition rates and avoids the thermal stress cracking
associated with RF sputtering of nonconductive targets.
One method uses electrical energy, generally high-voltage radio-frequency power, to cause rapid resistive heating that induces thermal stress cracking. Another method, ultrasonic grinding, was first described by Tarpley, et al..
This article will show that microwave energy can be used to induce thermal stress cracking to decrease the energy requirements of grinding selected iron ores.