Assuming that most of the SN energy at this stage is in the form of kinetic energy of the shell, the energy available to thermalize the ISM is
It is also not always appreciated how uncertain is the fraction of the SNII explosion energy that can effectively thermalize the ISM.
To resolve this apparent conflict, Bob concludes that his measurement of the Hawking radiation must have influenced the state of the particles at the horizon--perhaps even producing a firewall, which would then thermalize
any infalling matter (including Alice).
The Bohr radius of such atoms is given by [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], where a' = [e'.sup.2]/4[pi], and gives another parameter that will be fixed to 1 [Angstrom] so that dark atoms have the same size as standard ones and can thermalize
in the Earth before reaching the underground detectors, as will be specified in Section 3.3.
The first wave takes place in the first fm/c of the collisions when gluons thermalize
into quark-gluon plasma (QGP), and the second wave ensues at hadronization, 5-10 fm/c, after a roughly isentropic expansion that roughly conserves the number of quarks .
However, the neutron thermalizes
and diffuses before being captured on either a proton or Gd with a mean capture time of ~ 30 [micro]s in the Gd-doped liquid scintillator and ~ 200 [micro]s in the undoped liquid scintillator, giving rise to a delayed signal.
The energy must be carried to the corona by some non-thermal means and then thermalizes
By the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and regardless of the origin of the dissipation mechanism, the motion of the NEMS ultimately thermalizes
In this picture, matter is created in a highly nonthermal state (determined primarily by the position and widths of the unstable parametric bands) and thermalizes
(at least in principle, although never quite proven directly) via scattering.
The neutron thermalizes
and is captured by a free proton, generating a typical 2.2 MeV gamma, the so-called delayed signal.
where [t.sub.H] represents the time at Hubble crossing of the smallest of the three inflation perturbation modes and [t.sub.F] represents the time when the last of the three wave vectors thermalizes
. The bispectrum for slow-roll, single field, super-cooled inflation models, and also for the set of warm inflation models is given by [31, 32]