(2000) reported it as a species found above the thermocline
, and suggested that it is present between the surface and the thermocline
Off California, deep-setting is of particular interest given that the waters are highly stratified with a relatively shallow thermocline
(20-70 m; Palacios et al., 2004) and oxygen minimum layer (350-400 m; Levin, 2003; Bograd et al., 2008).
Valves should be slow-acting to ensure that the thermocline
is not disrupted.
Temperature profiles showed an elevation of the thermocline
in the middle stations of the three transects, and 32 m average MLD depth, 4 m deeper than that observed the year before.
Depending on the thermocline
, they may not be right on the bottom and may be suspended in medium depths.
This equilibrium stability of offshore waters shows the thorough mixing of water and no halocline and thermocline
observed in the near shore waters of Karachi .
Periods of heightened surface-oriented behavior directly aligned with the months in which waters in Southern California exhibit the greatest degree of thermal stratification, with a relatively strong and shallow thermocline
present from May to September throughout the region (Cairns and LaFond, 1966).
After the wind ceased, around 10:00 pm a new thermo-hydrodynamic event started, characterized by thermocline
deepening and this extended until the end of the study, at 10:00 pm on September 14th.
The top of the thermocline
(the layer separating cold surface water and warm deep waters) was found to be about 250 meters deeper compared with any other year for which measurements exist.
The three lakes did not thermally stratify during 2005, but did display weak thermocline
development in 2011 and 2012 and strongly stratified during 1989, 1991, 1996, and 2001 (Figure 5).
Typically, incoming water mixes with water in the tank to form a one to two foot thick thermocline
. A thermocline
is a region within the chilled water with sharp vertical temperature and density gradients, or the thermal boundary layer.
The low velocity at inlet slots is another key factor to keep buoyancy force dominant enough to effectively form the thermocline
. Dorgan and Elleson (Dorgan 1994) investigated the swirling in the tank as a result of nonuniform velocity at diffuser slots and suggested that uniform static pressure in diffuser pipes can provide uniform discharge velocity at slots.