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Related to thiamin: riboflavin, folate


see coenzymecoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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; vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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A water-soluble vitamin found in many foods; pork, liver, and whole grains are particularly rich sources. It is also known as vitamin B1 or aneurin. The structural formula of thiamine is shown below.

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Thiamine deficiency is known as beriberi in humans and polyneuritis in birds. Muscle and nerve tissues are affected by the deficiency, and poor growth is observed. People with beriberi are irritable, depressed, and weak. They often die of cardiac failure. Wernicke's disease observed in alcoholics is associated with a thiamine deficiency. This disease is characterized by brain lesions, liver disease, and partial paralysis, particularly of the motor nerves of the eye. As is the case in all B vitamin diseases, thiamine deficiency is usually accompanied by deficiencies of other vitamins.



(vitamin B1; aneurine), a heterocyclic compound that is one of the water-soluble vitamins. It consists of colorless crystals with a characteristic odor.

Thiamine was first isolated from rice hulls by the Polish scientist K. Funk in 1912 and later was obtained synthetically. In nature, thiamine is synthesized by plants and certain microorganisms; it is found in the greatest quantities in brewers’ yeast, cereal grains, and potatoes. Animals and humans obtain thiamine from food. A shortage of thiamine in the diet results in the appearance of a serious disease, polyneuritis (in beriberi).

The physiological significance of thiamine results from the coenzyme functions of its pyrophosphoric ester, thiamine pyrophosphate (cocarboxylase). The daily requirement of thiamine for humans is 1.5–2 mg. Thiamine and its phosphoric esters and disulfide derivatives are used to treat peripheral neuritis, diabetes mellitus, disorders of the cardiovascular system, and other diseases associated with disruption of carbohydrate metabolism.


Ostrovskii, Iu. M. Tiamin. Minsk, 1971.


C12H17ClN4OS A member of the vitamin B complex that occurs in many natural sources, frequently in the form of cocarboxylase. Also known as aneurine; vitamin B1.


, thiamin
Biochem a soluble white crystalline vitamin that occurs in the outer coat of rice and other grains. It forms part of the vitamin B complex and is essential for carbohydrate metabolism: deficiency leads to nervous disorders and to the disease beriberi. Formula: C12H17ON4SCl.H2O
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Thiamin deficiency induces impaired fish gill immune responses, tight junction protein expression and antioxidant capacity: Roles of the NF-KB, TOR, p38 MAPK and Nrf2 signaling molecules.
It is also a good source of vitamin A, and thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12 and iron.
Different concentrations of thiamin showed comparable inhibitory responses: I2 produced maximum inhibition against G1 and G2 concentration of glucose.
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Though only a small part of the wheat seed, the germ is a highly concentrated source of nutrients, including niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, and zinc.
Health-wise, the nutritional vitamin and mineral content is preserved as they are processed within hours of being picked, containing around 30 percent of the vitamin C, 20 oercent of the B-carotene and 10 percent of the thiamin and iron content in an average diet.
Ready in just 10 minutes, Uncle Ben's Whole Grain White Rice--cholesterol free and a good source of fiber, niacin, thiamin, and folic acid--is available at grocery retailers nationwide in six varieties: Long Grain, Broccoli Cheddar, Chicken, Taco Style, Sweet Tomato, and Garden Vegetable.
Nature Made Prenatal + DHA is the first O-T-C prenatal supplement to combine both a prenatal multivitamin and omega-3 DHA, in addition to vitamins A, C, D, E, [B.sub.6] and [B.sub.12], thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, calcium, iron and zinc.
INGREDIENTS: Rice, Wheat Gluten, Sugar, Defatted Wheat Germ, Salt, High Fructose Corn Syrup, Dried Whey, Malt Flavoring, Calcium Caseinate, Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C), Alpha Tocopherol Acetate (Vitamin E), Reduced Iron, Niacinamide, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Thiamin Hydrochloride (vitamin B1), Vitamin A Palmitate, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12.
They are a good source of vitamin B (riboflavin, thiamin and niacin), vitamin C, calcium and phosphorus.
Finally a section detailing recent advances in biochemistry contains papers on large-scale structural biology of the human proteome, collagen structure and stability, the structural and biochemical foundations of thiamin biosynthesis, the chemical biology of protein phosphorylation, and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, among other topics.
Thiamin was found to be best at preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress and mitochondrial toxins but not oxidative stress cell death suggesting that thiamin pyrophosphate restored pyruvate and alphaketoglutarate dehydrogenases inhibited by mitochondrial toxicity.