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Related to thiamine: riboflavin, Thiamine deficiency


see coenzymecoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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; vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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A water-soluble vitamin found in many foods; pork, liver, and whole grains are particularly rich sources. It is also known as vitamin B1 or aneurin. The structural formula of thiamine is shown below.

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Thiamine deficiency is known as beriberi in humans and polyneuritis in birds. Muscle and nerve tissues are affected by the deficiency, and poor growth is observed. People with beriberi are irritable, depressed, and weak. They often die of cardiac failure. Wernicke's disease observed in alcoholics is associated with a thiamine deficiency. This disease is characterized by brain lesions, liver disease, and partial paralysis, particularly of the motor nerves of the eye. As is the case in all B vitamin diseases, thiamine deficiency is usually accompanied by deficiencies of other vitamins.

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(vitamin B1; aneurine), a heterocyclic compound that is one of the water-soluble vitamins. It consists of colorless crystals with a characteristic odor.

Thiamine was first isolated from rice hulls by the Polish scientist K. Funk in 1912 and later was obtained synthetically. In nature, thiamine is synthesized by plants and certain microorganisms; it is found in the greatest quantities in brewers’ yeast, cereal grains, and potatoes. Animals and humans obtain thiamine from food. A shortage of thiamine in the diet results in the appearance of a serious disease, polyneuritis (in beriberi).

The physiological significance of thiamine results from the coenzyme functions of its pyrophosphoric ester, thiamine pyrophosphate (cocarboxylase). The daily requirement of thiamine for humans is 1.5–2 mg. Thiamine and its phosphoric esters and disulfide derivatives are used to treat peripheral neuritis, diabetes mellitus, disorders of the cardiovascular system, and other diseases associated with disruption of carbohydrate metabolism.


Ostrovskii, Iu. M. Tiamin. Minsk, 1971.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


C12H17ClN4OS A member of the vitamin B complex that occurs in many natural sources, frequently in the form of cocarboxylase. Also known as aneurine; vitamin B1.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


, thiamin
Biochem a soluble white crystalline vitamin that occurs in the outer coat of rice and other grains. It forms part of the vitamin B complex and is essential for carbohydrate metabolism: deficiency leads to nervous disorders and to the disease beriberi. Formula: C12H17ON4SCl.H2O
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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Effect of thiamine administration on lactate clearance and mortality in patents with septic shock.
Except for in extreme cases, a proper diet comprising of more thiamine than needed must be supplied while the body is in the recovering state.
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First week response to thiamine was total resolution of confusion and partial resolution of nystagmus and ataxia.
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[2] British Pharmacopoeia, Monograph on Thiamine, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, UK, 2016.
We hypothesized that abnormalities of brain energy metabolism in CH could be linked to selective neuronal thiamine deficiency in the centers that are involved in this disease.
WE is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome found in chronic alcoholics, characterized by mental status changes, unsteadiness of stance and gait, nystagmus, and ophthalmoplegia--although this triad is seen in only 16% of patients, [23] which is the result and effect of deficiency of thiamine whose biologically active form thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is an essential coenzyme in several biochemical pathways in the brain.
The World Health Organization investigated the efficacy of benfotiamine and thiamine by culturing human endothelial cells in normal and very high glucose concentrations.
To our knowledge, we report the first case of an unvaccinated pediatric patient with malignant pertussis on VA ECMO and CRRT and receiving TPN, who developed severe lactic acidosis resulting from thiamine deficiency.
At that point, his thiamine level was obtained, and the patient was treated with intravenous thiamine (500 mg every 8 hours).