thiamine


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Related to thiamine: riboflavin, Thiamine deficiency

thiamine:

see coenzymecoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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; vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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.

Thiamine

A water-soluble vitamin found in many foods; pork, liver, and whole grains are particularly rich sources. It is also known as vitamin B1 or aneurin. The structural formula of thiamine is shown below.

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Thiamine deficiency is known as beriberi in humans and polyneuritis in birds. Muscle and nerve tissues are affected by the deficiency, and poor growth is observed. People with beriberi are irritable, depressed, and weak. They often die of cardiac failure. Wernicke's disease observed in alcoholics is associated with a thiamine deficiency. This disease is characterized by brain lesions, liver disease, and partial paralysis, particularly of the motor nerves of the eye. As is the case in all B vitamin diseases, thiamine deficiency is usually accompanied by deficiencies of other vitamins.

Thiamine

 

(vitamin B1; aneurine), a heterocyclic compound that is one of the water-soluble vitamins. It consists of colorless crystals with a characteristic odor.

Thiamine was first isolated from rice hulls by the Polish scientist K. Funk in 1912 and later was obtained synthetically. In nature, thiamine is synthesized by plants and certain microorganisms; it is found in the greatest quantities in brewers’ yeast, cereal grains, and potatoes. Animals and humans obtain thiamine from food. A shortage of thiamine in the diet results in the appearance of a serious disease, polyneuritis (in beriberi).

The physiological significance of thiamine results from the coenzyme functions of its pyrophosphoric ester, thiamine pyrophosphate (cocarboxylase). The daily requirement of thiamine for humans is 1.5–2 mg. Thiamine and its phosphoric esters and disulfide derivatives are used to treat peripheral neuritis, diabetes mellitus, disorders of the cardiovascular system, and other diseases associated with disruption of carbohydrate metabolism.

REFERENCE

Ostrovskii, Iu. M. Tiamin. Minsk, 1971.

thiamine

[′thī·ə·mən]
(biochemistry)
C12H17ClN4OS A member of the vitamin B complex that occurs in many natural sources, frequently in the form of cocarboxylase. Also known as aneurine; vitamin B1.

thiamine

, thiamin
Biochem a soluble white crystalline vitamin that occurs in the outer coat of rice and other grains. It forms part of the vitamin B complex and is essential for carbohydrate metabolism: deficiency leads to nervous disorders and to the disease beriberi. Formula: C12H17ON4SCl.H2O
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None of the patients in the control group received intravenous vitamin C or thiamine, but 60% received intravenous hydrocortisone at the discretion of the treating physician.
WE is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome found in chronic alcoholics, characterized by mental status changes, unsteadiness of stance and gait, nystagmus, and ophthalmoplegia--although this triad is seen in only 16% of patients, [23] which is the result and effect of deficiency of thiamine whose biologically active form thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is an essential coenzyme in several biochemical pathways in the brain.
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There are 5 distinct phenotypes based on age of onset, severity of symptoms and response to thiamine treatment.
The body's thiamine reserve is depleted in HEG and WE, especially in tissues with a high metabolic rate such as the brain.
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Fasting blood samples of diabetic and control groups were analyzed for glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the assessment of glycemic status, thiol for antioxidant status, thiamine chloride and thiamine monophosphate for assessment of thiamine status.
Pharmaceutical company Mylan Inc (NasdaqGS:MYL) reported on Thursday the receipt of final approval for its Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for preservative-free Thiamine Hydrochloride Injection, 100 mg/mL, packaged in 200 mg/2 mL multiple-dose vials.
Nasdaq: MYL), a global pharmaceutical company, announced today that its Mylan Institutional business has received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration for its Abbreviated New Drug Application for preservative-free Thiamine Hydrochloride Injection, 100 mg/mL.