Thickening

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thickening

[′thik·ə·niŋ]
(chemical engineering)
The concentration of the solids in a suspension in order to recover a fraction with a higher concentration of solids than in the original suspension.
(mining engineering)
Concentrating dilute slime pulp into a pulp containing a smaller percentage of moisture by rejecting the free liquid.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Thickening

 

the removal of the liquid phase, for example, water, from disperse systems, for example, pulps, suspensions, and colloids. Thickening forms the basis for the production of condensed milk, fruit and vegetable juices, syrups, and purees. The process consists in the removal of moisture from the starting products in evaporators. After thickening, moisture content in milk and juices is reduced by a factor of 10–15.

As a production operation or, more frequently, an auxiliary operation in production, thickening is used in processes where one stage requires water but subsequent stages require a drastic reduction in the amount of water. Processes of this type include the production of paper, the concentration of ores, and processes in hydromechanization and hydrometallurgy. In the production of paper, the ground fibrous mass is mixed with water, thereby forming a suspension. After stirring and the removal of mechanical impurities, the suspension is subjected to thickening prior to shipment to the factory. In wet concentration of ores, a pulp is formed, which consists of a concentrate and 40–60 percent water. Since the water content in the concentrate shipped to the factory should not exceed 5–15 percent, the pulp is first thickened, which reduces the water content by a factor of 1.5–2, and then dehydrated, which results in an almost total removal of water. When dredges are used to work gravel deposits containing sand, the content of the material in the pulp is 3–6 percent by volume. Prior to screening and hydraulic separation, the sand in the pulp is thickened to a concentration of 10–15 percent.

V. V. BERDUS

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The sensitivity for flat gallbladder wall thickening was 50%, while the sensitivity for GB polyp was 0%.
However, needless to say, it is important to observe the lesion in detail using EUS since some lesions concurrently contain GB polyp and flat gallbladder wall thickening. On the other hand, it is thought that the effectiveness of the ETGD cytology for diagnosis of gallbladder cancer in flat gallbladder wall thickening is very high, particularly for the washed ETGD cytology using ETGD.
However, we take the view that the ETGD cytology should be positively taken into consideration for lesions of flat gallbladder wall thickening for which it is difficult to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and to determine the treatment policy, particularly the surgical procedure, to be adopted.
Lee et al., "Analysis of enhancement pattern of flat gallbladder wall thickening on MDCT to differentiate gallbladder cancer from cholecystitis," American Journal ofRoentenology, vol.
(c, d) Localized wall thickening that exhibits a contrast effect is found at the bottom of the gallbladder in an abdominal CT scan image.