The 532nm excitation wavelength also delivers higher spatial resolution for Raman microscopy measurements, making it ideal for carbon materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, and other thin-film material
Among the deposition techniques available to developers of thin-film material
, ion beam sputtering is highly valued for its ability to provide excellent layer thickness control, enhanced process stability and low optical losses.
The trade-off is that, when encapsulated in glass, the thin-film material
loses the advantage of being lightweight and flexible, which puts these companies in direct competition with every crystalline PV module manufacturer, not just other thin-film companies.
The next product the company will develop, depending on funding, is a flexible thin-film material
that he called the next generation of solar cells.
In phase-change recording technology, a laser beam heats a thin-film material
that can be in one of two states: (1) amorphous, in which there is very low reflectance, or (2) crystalline, in which there is very high reflectance.
For mechanical testing, peel strength was measured on "closed sandwich" laminated samples where a 10 x 10 mm square piece of the same solution-cast rubber thin-film material
was placed between two thicker films of oriented matrix material.
"The fact that a polycrystalline thin-film material
is getting so close in efficiency to single-crystal materials, for much less cost, is a significant achievement?
The scientists say that the process could be used to develop complex thin-film materials
which would be too fragile for the more common solvent based processes.
To enhance solar-cell efficiency, scientists have been building multijunction cells in which layers of thin-film materials
are stacked, with each layer tuned to a different part of the spectrum.
These include developing thin-film materials
and novel manufacturing methods for wearable technology; improving the mass production of carbon nanotube materials; as well as developing materials for the new class of photonic integrated circuits--for use in communications, sensors, imaging and also lighting.
Materials scientists review recent developments in optical thin films, focusing on thin-film materials
and applications in optics and related fields.
In the past, determination of the optical band gap ([E.sub.g]) was often necessary to develop the electronic band structure of the thin-film materials
for investigating them as a transparent electrode of the thin-film solar cells.