These diseases cause significant commercial losses, and the pathogen is controlled by the use of fungicides such as Mancozeb, Difenconazole, Propiconazole, Myclobutani, Carbendazim, Thiophanate
methyl, Copper oxychloride, Copper hydroxide, and Benomyl (Thejakumar and Devappa, 2016).
In the chemical treatment of the seeds, the fungicide + insecticide mixture was used: Piraclostrobin 25g ia [L.sup.-1] + Thiophanate
methyl 225 g [L.sup.-1] + Fipronil 250 g [L.sup.-1] (Standak[R] Top) at the dose 2 mL [kg.sup.-1] of seeds.
High-purity analytical standards of boscalid, captan, chlorpyrifos (99.2%), thiacloprid, thiophanate
, and ziram were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.
The efficiency of the prepared cartridge of adsorption or retention of the different pesticides including abamectin, diazinon, fenamiphos, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, methomyl, and thiophanate
methyl was tested at three concentrations of each pesticide.
, and etomidate increase the chance of tumor retention and metastasis because of the reduced NK cell activity, reduced T-helper cells, and increased T-inhibiting cell viability.
He said Pakistani Basmati rice was famous due to its quality and aroma, and rice growers by suspending the use of anti-fungus poisons like Carbendazim, Thiophanate
methyl and others the demand of rice could be enhanced.
Seeds were treated with Pyraclostrobin (25g [L.sup.-1]), methyl thiophanate
(225g [L.sup.-1]), and fipronil (250g [L.sup.-1]), at a rate of 200mL per 100 seed [kg.sup.-1], and inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains.
Average mycelial growth inhibition recorded with the test systemic fungicides was ranged from 37.84 (Thiophanate
methyl) to 100 (Hexaconazole) per cent.
Pelt (trademark: Procida Groups Roussel Uclaf) which is a systemic fungicide containing 70% methyl thiophanate
was used as a standard antifungal compound and was also prepared with the same concentrations.
Cronos[TM] technology [liquid inoculant (5 x [10.sup.9] CFU [mL.sup.-1]), along with two additives (A and B)] was employed in a 2-day preinoculation scheme in the presence of the chemical (insecticide/fungicide) Standak Top[TM] (Fipronil + Pyraclostrobin + Methyl thiophanate
), and in a 4-day preinoculation scheme in the absence of the chemical.
Fungicidal seed treatment with benomyl, thiram, benomyl + thiram, carbendazim + thiram, carboxin + thiram, fludioxonil, mancozeb, iprodione + triticonazole, prochloraz, thiophanate
- methyl and ipconazole at 1-2% of seed weight found effective in various countries viz., Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Italy (Ou, 1987; Bagga and Sharma, 2006; Bagga et al., 2007; Karov et al., 2009; Ora et al., 2011; Tateishi et al., 1998; Ghazanfar et al., 2009).
Inhibitory effect of carbendazim and thiophanate
methyl against L.