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the fastest breed of horse in the world. The Thoroughbred was developed in Great Britain in the late 17th and early 18th centuries by crossing local breeds with Oriental breeds (the Barb, Turk, Arabian, and Turkmen) and European breeds (Neapolitan and Spanish). It has been improved strictly through pure breeding. The Thoroughbred is bred for speed and efficiency on racetracks. In the late 18th century the breed was imported by many countries, including Russia. In the USSR, it is one of the main breeds used in improving saddle horses.
The Thoroughbred is a large horse with a harmonious conformation. The head is delicate, the withers are high and long, the back is relatively short, and the legs are slender, with well-defined tendons. The coat is chestnut, bay, roan, black, or gray. The average measurements are as follows: height at the withers, 161 to 162 cm; chest circumference, 182 to 186 cm; and circumference of the front cannon bone, 19 to 20 cm. Thoroughbreds are used for sport and to improve saddle-horse breeds, including the Trakehner, Hanoverian, Budennyi, and Kustanai breeds. The world record for 1,200 m is 1 min 07.4 sec; for 2,400 m, 2 min 23 sec; and for 3,200 m, 3 min 19 sec. The countries of Europe and the USA have the greatest number of Thoroughbreds. In the USSR, Thoroughbreds are raised in stud farms in the RSFSR, Ukrainian SSR, Georgian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Kirghiz SSR, and Kazakh SSR. A continuous exchange between countries of purebreds is conducted to improve the breed. The USSR imports sires from Great Britain, France, and the USA and exports its horses to Italy, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Poland.
REFERENCESKniga o loshadi, vol. 1. Compiled under the direction of S. M. Budennyi. Moscow, 1952.
Vitt, V. O. Praktika i teoriia chistokrovnogo konnozavodstva. Moscow, 1957.
Konnozavodstvo i konnyi sport. Edited by Iu. N. Barmintsev. [Moscow] 1972.
E. M PERN