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, inflammation of a vein. Phlebitis is almost always accompanied by a blood clot, or thrombus, in the affected vein, a condition known as thrombophlebitis (see thrombosis). Blood-clot formation may follow injury or be associated with infections.
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inflammation of a vein wall associated with the formation of a thrombus that obstructs the vein’s lumen. The disease may be caused by infection, injury to a vein, or slowing of the flow of blood and its increased coagulability.
A distinction is made between thrombophlebitis of superficial and often varicosed veins and that of deep veins. The veins of the lower extremities and pelvis minor are often affected, and the ca-val portal and hepatic veins less often. Thrombophlebitis sometimes occurs as a complication of childbirth, surgery, infectious diseases, and malignant neoplasms. Acute thrombophlebitis is manifested by pain in the region of the affected veins, elevated body temperature, and chills. Painful indurations and local inflammation characterize thrombophlebitis of superficial veins, whereas edema of an extremity owing to marked impairment of the blood flow is typical of thrombophlebitis of deep veins. Purulent softening of the thrombus and the spread of the infection through the bloodstream is called thrombophlebitis purulenta. Thrombophlebitis may also be chronic, with intermittent exacerbations. The most dangerous complication is detachment of the thrombus or part of it and its entry into the pulmonary artery.
Treatment varies with the stage and form of the disease and consists of rest, the administration of antibiotics and anticoagulants, and surgery.
REFERENCEStruchkov, V. I. Obshchaia khirurgiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.
V. A. PENIN