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see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the cordlike association of nerve tissues that links the brain and nerve ganglia by innervation to the other organs and tissues of the body.

A nerve primarily consists of nerve fibers. In vertebrates many nerves converge to form a bundle that is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath, the perineurium; the thin interstitial layers of connective tissue that separate the individual fibers deep within the bundle constitute the endoneurium. Finally, the entire nerve trunk, comprising several bundles, is covered by an additional sheath, the epineurium.

Nerves can be sensory (also called afferent or centripetal) or motor (also called efferent or centrifugal). Some nerves, for example, those innervating the skeletal muscles, mainly include myelinated, or medullated, fibers; others, for example, the sympathetic nerves, largely consist of unmyelinated, or unmedullated, fibers.

In reptiles, birds, mammals, and man 12 pairs of cranial nerves branch from the brain: the olfactory (cranial nerve I), the optic (cranial nerve II), the oculomotor (cranial nerve III), the trochlear (cranial nerve IV), the trigeminal (cranial nerve V), the abducent (cranial nerve VI), the facial (cranial nerve VII), the acoustic (cranial nerve VIII), the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX), the vagus (cranial nerve X), the accessory (cranial nerve XI), and the hypoglossal (cranial nerve XII). Only the first ten pairs are present in fish and amphibians.

In man there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: eight cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal. Each pair innervates the effectors and receptors of a certain part of the body. The spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord into two roots—the posterior, or sensory, and the anterior, or motor. Both roots then combine to form a common trunk that consists of both sensory and motor fibers.

Several adjacent nerves can be combined into nerve plexuses, where an exchange of fibers between different nerves can take place. Three large plexuses are distinguished: the cervical, the brachial, and the lumbosacral. Each nerve plexus is the origin of several pairs of nerves; for example, the sacral portion of the lumbosacral plexus gives rise to the sciatic nerves.

Nerves that originate in the ganglia, trunks, and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system constitute a specific group. The optic nerve is remarkable for its large number of fibers; there are more than 1 million in the human optic nerve. Usually, however, there are 103 -104 fibers in a nerve. In invertebrates certain nerves are known to consist of only a few fibers. The peripheral nervous system in animals and man consists of aggregations of nerves.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A bundle of nerve fibers or processes held together by connective tissue.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Any one of the ribs of a groined vault, but esp. a rib which forms one of the sides of a compartment of the groining.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. any of the cordlike bundles of fibres that conduct sensory or motor impulses between the brain or spinal cord and another part of the body
2. a large vein in a leaf
3. any of the veins of an insect's wing
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
A window discriminator made it possible to time the tibial nerve stimulation to the onset of tibialis anterior (TA) EMG activity.
Among the nerves, the ulnar nerve innervating the pulp of the fifth finger had the least improvement and the medial plantar branch of the tibial nerve innervating the big toe pulp had the most improvement by 2 years after surgery (Figure 1, Figure 2).
Dellon, "Soleal sling syndrome (proximal tibial nerve compression): results of surgical decompression," Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol.
The operator manually outlined the tibial nerve in every axial image (in total 14 slices) into all the "in phase" images, using the proprietary software JIM (Xinapse Systems Ltd, Essex, UK).
Following dissection, blue dye was observed to be contained within the paraneural sheath of the tibial nerve with only minimal extravasation to adjacent structures, Figure 1(a).
Long-term efficacy of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for different types of lower urinary tract dysfunction in children.
Three baropodometric evaluations were carried out: at baseline, post-block (following motor block of the gastrocnemii nerve) and post-surgery (after selective tibial nerve neurotomy, and additional surgery if necessary).
In women with refractory OAB, available second-line treatments include neuromodulation by sacral nerve or posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS).
They address the pathophysiology of bowel and bladder dysfunction; epidemiology, quality of life factors, psychological aspects, and neuropsychiatric disorders and genetic aspects; evaluation using urodynamics, uroflowmetry and postvoid residual urine tests, and other methods; behavioral, psychological, medical, and surgical treatments, including urotherapy, physiotherapy, biofeedback, pharmacotherapy, peripheral tibial nerve stimulation therapy, sacral nerve stimulation therapy, and botulinum toxin; the evaluation and management of nocturnal enuresis; and neurogenic bladder and bowel dysfunction.
Based on the clinical finding and the evolution of the wound the following surgical procedures were planned: coverage of the heel wound with a "pedicled instep flap," exploration, and possible reconstruction of a tibial nerve injury using the "turnover flap technique."
Mean changes in nerve conduction velocity of the tibial nerve, distal latency of the superficial peroneal nerve and sural nerve, and sensory amplitude of the sural nerve were significantly higher in the C.
The R median, ulnar, peroneal and tibial nerve latencies were 2.8 ms, 2.4 ms, 3.0 ms and 3.5 ms, respectively (within normal limits), and their conduction velocities 54.4 m/s, 70.3 m/s, 43.4 m/s and 55.3 m/s, respectively, were also normal.